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From 1807 to 1810. 








And Sola by 


I riiitca by J. L. Cox, Great Quteii i?treet, 
Liiicoln's-hui Fields 


Conquerors are deemed successful rob- 
bers, while robbers are unsuccessful 
conquerors. If the founder of the dy- 
nasty of the Ming had failed in his 
rebellion against the Moguls, history 
would have called him a robber ; and if 
any one of the various robber-chiefs, who 
in the course of the two last centuries 
made war against the reigning Manchow, 
had overthrown the government of the 
foreigners, the official historiographers of 
the " Middle empire" would have called 
him l/ie far-famed, illustrious elder father 
of the new dynasty. 



Robbers or pirates are usually ignorant 
of the principles concerning human so- 
ciety. They are not aware that power is 
derived from the people for the general 
advantage, and that when it is abused to 
a certain extent, all means of redress re- 
sorted to are legitimate. But they feel 
most violently the abuse of power. The 
fruit of labour is too often taken out of 
their hands, justice sold for money, and 
nothing is safe from their rapacious and 
luxurious masters. People arise to oppose, 
and act according to the philosophical 
principles of human society, without hav- 
ing any clear idea about them. Robbers 
and pirates are, in fact, the opposition 
party in the despotical empires of the 
East ; and their history is far more inte- 
resting than that of the reigning despot.* 

• The Chinese have particular histories of the robbers and 
pirates who existed in the middle empire from the most ancient 
times ; these histories form a portion of every provincial history. 
The three last bof)ks (the 58th, 59th, and 60th) of the Memoirs 



The sameness which is to be observed in 
the history of all Asiatic governments, 
presents a great difficulty to any historian 
who wishes to write a history of any na- 
tion in Asia for the general reader. 

The history of the transactions between 
Europeans and the Chinese is intimately 
connected with that of the pirate chiefs 
who appeared from time to time in the 
Chinese Sea, or Southern Ocean. The 
Europeans themselves, at their first ap- 
pearance in the middle empire, only be- 
came known as pirates. Simon de An- 
drada, the first Portuguese who (1521) 
tried to establish any regular trade with 

concerning the South of the MeAhling Mountains (see the Cate- 
chism of the Shahmans, p. 44) are inscribed Tsing fun (10,987, 
2,651), and contain the Robber history from the beginning of Woo 
wang, of the dynasty Chow. The Memoirs only give extracts of 
former works ; the extracts to the three last books are taken from 
the Great History of Yiie, or Province of Kwang- tang ( Yzie ta 
ke)y from the Old Transactions of the Five Realms ( Woo kivo koo 
sse), the Old Records of Yang ching, a name of the ancient city of 
Kwang tung ( Yang ching koo chaou), the Official Robber History 
(Kwo she yih shin chuen), &c. 



China, committed violence against the 
merchants, and bought young Chinese to 
use them as slaves ; and it is known that 
it was the policy of the civilized foreigners 
from the "Great Western Ocean" (which 
is the Chinese name for Europe) to decry 
their competitors in trade as pirates and 

The footing which Europeans and Ame- 
ricans now enjoy in China, originated from 
the assistance given by the Portuguese to 
the Manchow against the Patriots, other- 
wise called pirates, who would not sub- 
mit to the sway of foreigners. Macao, 
the only residence (or large prison) in 
which foreigners are shut up, is not con- 
sidered by the Chinese Government as 
belonging exclusively to the Portuguese. 
The Dutch, on not being allowed to re- 
main in Macao, complained to the Chi- 
nese Government, and the authorities of 
the middle empire commanded the Por- 



tiiguese to grant houses to the newly- 
arrived Holan or Hollander, "since Ma- 
cao was to be considered as the abode of 
all foreigners trading with China." The 
edicts concerning this transaction are 
stated to be now in the archives of the 
Dutch factory at Macao. 

It is one of the most interesting facts in 
the history of the Chinese empire, that 
the various barbarous tribes, who subdued 
either the whole or a part of this singular 
country, were themselves ultimately sub- 
dued by the peculiar civilization of their 
subjects. The Kitans, Moguls, and Maii- 
cliow, became, in the course of time, 
Chinese people ; like the Osti'o, and Visi- 
goths, and Longobards 一 Romans. But 
we may remark, that both the Chinese 
and the Roman civilization under the 
Emperors recommended itself to the con- 
querors, as connected with a despotism 
which particularly suited the views of the 




conquerors. Though this large division 
of the human race, which we are accus- 
tomed to call Tatars, never felt a spark 
of that liberty which everywhere animated 
the various German nations and tribes, and 
the Khakhans, in consequence of this, were 
not in need of any foreign policy to en- 
slave their compatriots ; yet it may be 
said, that neither Moguls nor Mancliow 
were able to establish a despotic form of 
government which worked so well for a 
large nation as that of the Chinese. 

The extremes of both despotism and 
democracy acknowledge no intermediary 
power or rank. The sovereign is the 
vice -regent of heaven, and all in all ; 
he is the only rule of right and wrong, 
and commands both what shall be done in 
this world and thought of concerning the 
next. It may be easily imagined, that the 
Jesuits, on their first arrival in China, 
were delighted with such a perfect spe- 



cimen of government according to their 
political sentiments. They tried all that 
human power could command to succeed 
in the conversion of this worldly paradise. 
The fathers disguised themselves as astro- 
nomers, watchmakers, painters, musicians, 
and engineers.* They forged inscriptions 1 
and invented miracles, and almost went to 
the extent of canonizing Confucius. But 
this cunning deference to Chinese cus- 
toms involved the Jesuits in a dispute 
with their more pious but less prudent 
competitors ; and notwithstanding all the 

• We are chiefly indebted to the Jesuits that the Russians had 
not conquered part of China about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. See the passage of Muller in Burney's Voyages of Dis- 
covery to the North-East Passage, p. 55. The Manchow de- 
stroyed the Chinese patriots by tlie cannon cast by the Rev. 
Father Verbiest. 一 Le Comte, Nouvelles Observations sur la Chine. 

t We have a learned dissertation, pleading for the authenticity 
of the famous inscription of Se ngan foo, by a well-known Sino- 
lo<rue. May we not be favoured with another Oratio pro domu 
concerning' the many crosses which had been found in Fuh keen, 
and on the " Escre vices (le JVIer, qui estans encore en vie, lors 
mesme qu'elles estoient cuites?" See Relation de la Chine par 
Michel Boym, de la Conipagnic de Jesus, in Tlicvono, et Rehitions 
de (livers Voyage, vol. ii, pp. and 14. 



cleverness of the Jesuits, the Chinese 
saw at last, tliat in becoming Roman Ca- 
tholic Christians they must cease to be 
Chinese, and obey a foreign sovereign in 
the Great IVestern Ocean. Toland affirms, 
that the Chinese and the Irish, in the time 
of their heathen monarch Laogirius^ were 
the only nations in which religious perse- 
cutions never existed ; * this praise now 
refers exclusively to Ireland. Roman 
Catholicism is at this moment nearly 

• Toland, History of the Druids, p. 51. ― " This justice, there- 
fore, I Avould do to Ireland, even if it had not been my country, 
viz. to maintain that this tolerating principle, this impartial liberty 
(of religion), ever since unexampled there as well as elsewhere, 
China ecvcrpted, is far greater honour to it," &c. Never was a man 
more calumniated than Confucius by the Jesuit Couplet. Con- 
fucius Sinannn Philosophm was printed in the year 1687, shortly 
after Louis XIV". abolished the Edict of Nantes, and persecuted 
the most industrious part of his subjects. The Jesuit is bold 
enough to affirm, in his Epistola Dedicatoina ad Ludovicum mag- 
num, that the Chinese philosopher would be exceedingly rejoiced 
in seeing" the piety of the great king. " Quibtis te landihis efferrety 
cum haeresiiiy ho stem illam aviiae fidei ac regn i flo ren i issim. i ieteiTi- 
mam,, proculcatam et attritam, edicta quihtis vitam ducere videbatur, 
nbrogaia ; disjecta templa, nomm ipsum sqndtum, tot animarum 
mitt in pristinis ah errorihus ad veritnte'm, ab eaitio ad saluiem lam 
smviter (/) tamforiikr (/), tarn fdkiter (•') traduvta. 



extinguished in China. To become a 
Christian is considered high- treason, and 
the only Roman Catholic priest at Canton 
at the present time, is compelled to hide 
himself under the mask of shopkeeper. 
In their successful times, during the seven- 
teenth century, the Roman Catholic Mis- 
sionaries published in Europe, that no 
nation was more virtuous, nor any go- 
vernment more enlightened than that of 
the Chinese ; these false eulogies were 
the source of that high opinion in which 
the Chinese were formerly held in Eu- 

The merchants and adventurers who 
came to China " to make money ,, found 
both the government and people widely 
different from descriptions given by the 
Jesuits. They found that the Chinese of- 
ficers of government, commonly called 
Mandarins, would think themselves de- 
filed by the least intercourse with fo- 



reigners, particularly merchants ; and that 
the laws are often interpreted quite dif- 
ferently before and after receiving bribes. 
The Europeans were proud of their ci- 
vilization and cleverness in mercantile 
transactions, and considered the inha- 
bitants of all the other parts of the world 
as barbarians ; but they found, to their 
astonishment and disappointment, the 
Chinese still more proud and cunning. 
We may easily presume that these de- 
luded merchants became very irritated, 
and in their anger they reported to their 
countrymen in Europe that the Chinese 
were the most treacherous and abandon- 
ed people in the world,* that "they were 
only a peculiar race of savages," and re- 
quired to be chastised in one way or 
another ; which would certainly be very 
easy. Commodore Anson, with a single 
weather-beaten sixty -gun ship, in fact, 

• Toreen's Voyage bebiud Osbeck, II. 239, English translation. 



set the whole power of the Chinese Go- 
vernment at defiance. 

The Translator of the History of the 
Pirates ventures to affirm, that the Chi- 
nese system of government is by far the 
best that ever existed in Asia ; not ex- 
cepting any of the different monarchies 
founded by the followers of Alexander, 
the government of the Roman Praetors 
and of Byzantine Dukes, or that of 
Christian Kings and Barons who reigned 
in various parts of the East during the 
middle ages. The principles of Chinese 
government are those of virtue and jus- 
tice ; but they are greatly corrupted by 
the passions and vices of men. The 
greater part of their laws are good and 
just, though the practice is often bad ; but 
unfortunately this is generally not known 
to the " Son of Heaven/' It is the interest 
of the Emperor to deal out justice to the 
lowest of his subjects ; but, supposing it 



were possible that one man could manage 
the government of such an immense em- 
pire, who either could or would dare to 
denounce every vicious or unjust act of 
the officers employed by government ? 
The Chinese themselves are a clever 
shrewd sort of people ; deceit and false- 
hood are, perhaps, more generally found 
in the " flowery empire " than any where 
else ; but take them all in all, they rank 
high in the scale of nations, and the 
generality of the people seem to be quite 
satisfied with their government ; they 
may wish for a change of masters, but 
certainly not for an entire change of the 
system of government. 

There has existed for a long period, 
and still exists, a powerful party in the 
Chinese Empire, which is against the do- 
minion of the Manchow ; the different 
mountainous tribes maintain, even now, 
in the interior of China, a certain hide- 



pendence of the Tay tsing dynasty. The 
Meao tsze, who were in Canton some 
years ago, stated, with a proud feeling, 
that they were Ming jin, people of Ming ; 
the title of the native sovereigns of China 
before the conquest of the Mancliow. It 
is said, that the whole disaffected party is 
united in a society ― generally called the 
Triade- Union ― and that they aimed at 
the overthrow of the Tatars, particularly 
under the weak government of the late 
Emperor ; but the rebels totally failed in 
their object both by sea and land. 

It has been falsely reported in Europe, 
that it is not allowed by the laws of 
China to publish the transactions of the 
reigning dynasty. It is true that the his- 
tory written by the official or imperial 
historians is not published ; but there 
is no statute which prohibits other per- 
sons from writing the occurrences of their 
times. It may be easily imagined that 




such authors will take especial care not to 
state any thing which may be offensive to 
persons in power. There is, however, no 
official court in China to regulate the 
course of the human understanding, there 
is nothing like that tribunal which in the 
greater part of the Continent of Europe 
is called the Censorship. Fear alone is 
quite sufficient to check the rising spirits 
of the liberals in the middle empire. The 
reader, therefore, should not expect that 
either the author of the " History of the 
Rebellions in the Interior of China/' or 
the writer of the " Pacification of the Pi- 
rates/' would presume to state that per- 
sons whom government is pleased to style 
robbers and pirates, are in reality ene- 
mies of the present dynasty ; neither 
would they state that government, not 
being able to quell these rebellions, are 
compelled to give large recompenses to 
the different chiefs who submit. These 



facts are scarcely hinted at in the Chinese 
histories. The government officers are 
usually delineated as the most excellent 
men in the world. When they run away, 
they know before -hand that fighting will 
avail nothing ; and when they pardon, 
they are not said to be compelled by ne- 
cessity, but it is described as an act of 
heavenly virtue ! From what we learn by 
the statements of a Chinese executioner, 
we should be led to form a bad opinion of 
the veracity of these historians, and the 
heavenly virtue of their government ; for 
it is said, that one Chinese executioner be- 
headed a thousand pirates in one year.* 

The author of the following work is 
a certain Yung lun yum, called Jang 
sgen,^\ a native of the city or market 
town Shun tih, eighty le southerly from 

• The Canton Register, 1829, No. 20. 

t Jang seen is his Tsze, or title. The nunil)ers which are to 
be found on the margin of the translation, refer to the pages 
of the Chinese printed text. 



Canton. The great number of proper 
names, of persons and places, to be 
found in the " History of the Pacification 
of the Pirates," together with the nick- 
names and thieves' slang employed by 
the followers of Cliing yili, presented pe- 
culiar difficulties in the translation of 
Yuen's publication. The work was pub- 
lished in November 1830 at Canton ; and 
it is to be regretted, for the fame of the 
author in the great western ocean, that he 
used provincial and abbreviated charac- 
ters. I will not complain that by so 
doing he caused many difficulties to his 
translator, for a native of Shun tih would 
not trouble himself on that point ; but I 
have reason to believe that the head 
schoolmaster of Kwang tiing will think 
it an abomination that Yung lun yuen 
should dare take such liberties in a his- 
torical composition. Schoolmasters have 
a greater sway in China than any where 



else, and they like not to be trifled with. 
These are particularly the men, who, 
above all others, oppose any innovation 
or reform ; scholars, who presume to 
know every thing between heaven and 
earth : and they may certainly satisfy eve- 
ry man, who will rest satisfied by mere 
words. These learned gentlemen are too 
much occupied with their own philosophi- 
cal and literary disquisitions, to have any 
time, or to think it worth their notice, to 
pay attention to surrounding empires or 
nations. If we consider the scanty and 
foolish notices which are found in recent 
Chinese publications regarding those na- 
tions with which the Chinese should be 
well acquainted, we cannot but form a 
very low estimate of the present state of 
Chinese literature. How far otherwise 
are the accounts of foreign nations, which 
are to be found in the great work of 
Matuanlin ! It will, perhaps, be interest- 



ing to the European reader to learn, what 
the Chinese know and report concerning 
the nations of Ta se yang, or the great 
western ocean, I therefore take an oppor- 
tunity here to give some extracts from a 
Chinese publication relative to European 
nations, printed last year at Canton. 

The fifty -seventh hook of the Memoirs 
concerning the South of the Meiling Moun- 
tains, contains a history of all the South- 
ern barbarians (or foreigners) ; and here 
are mentioned 一 with the Tanka people 
and other barbarous tribes of Kwang 
tuiig and Kwang se ~~ the Siamese, the 
Mahometans, the French, Dutch, English, 
Portuguese, Austrians , Prussians, and 
Americans. The work was published by 
the command of Yuen, the ex- Governor- 
General of Canton, who is considered 
one of the principal living literary cha- 
racters of China, and it consists chiefly of 
extracts from the voluminous history of 



the province Kwang tung, published by 
his Excellency: ― 

The Religion of the Hwy hwy, or Mahometans. 

" This religion is professed by various sorts 
" of barbarians who live southerly beyond 
" Chen eking (Tseamba, or Zeampa), to the Se 
" yu. Their doctrines originated in the king- 
" dom of Me tih no (Medina). They say that 
" heaven is the origin of all things ; they do not 
" use any images. Their country is close to Teen 
" choo (India) ; their customs are quite diffe- 
" rent from those of the Buddhists ; they kill 
" living creatures, but they do not eat indiscri- 
" minately all that is killed ; they eat not hog's 
" flesh, and this is the essence of the doctrine 
" of Hwy hwy. They have now a foreign pa- 
" goda {fan to), near the temple of the com- 
" passionate saint (in Canton), which exists 
" since the time of the Tang. It is of a spiral 
" form, and 163 cubits high.* They go every 
" day therein to say prayers." 

• The cubit at Canton is 14 inches G25 dec. Morrison, under 
the word Weights, in his Dictionary, English and Chinese. 



. By the kindness of Dr. Morrison, the 
translator had the pleasure to converse 
with a member of the Mahometan 
clergy at Canton. He stated, that in the 
Mosque at Canton is a tablet, whereon it 
is written, that the religion of the Pro- 
phet of Mecca was brought to China, Tang 
ching yuen san neen, that is, in the third 
year of the period called Ching yuen, 
under the Tang dynasty, i. e. 787 of our 
era.* The compilers of the Memoirs, &c. 
have taken their extract from the histo- 
rical work of Ho (4051, M.) ; they seem 
not to have any knowledge of Matuanlin, 
where the Arabs are spoken of under the 
name of Ta she. See the notes to my 
translation of the Chronicle of Vahram, 
p. 76. During the time the translator 

• We see by this statement that Couplet is wrong in saying 
(Confucius Sinarum philosophus. Proemialis declaratio, p, 60) : 
" Mahometani, qui una cum suis erroribus ante annos fere scptin- 
gentos (Couplet wrote 1 683) magno numero et licentia ingressi in 



was at Canton, there arrived a pilgrim 
from Pekin on his way to Mecca. 

The Fa Ian se, Francs and Frenchmen. 

" The Fa Ian se are also called Fo long se, and 
' ' now Fo lang ke. In the beginning they adopted 
" the religion of Buddha, but afterwards they 
" received the religion of the Lord of Heaven, 
" They are assembled together and stay in Leu 
" song (Spain ?) ; they strive now very hard with 
' * the Hung maou or red-haired people (the Dutch), 
" and the Ying keih le {English) ; but the Fa Ian 
" se have rather the worst of it. These fo- 
" reigners, or barbarians (e jin) wear white 
" caps and black woollen hats ; they salute one 
" another by taking off the hat. Regarding 
" their garments and eating and drinking, they 
" have the same customs as the people of 
" Great Leu song and Small Leu song (Spain 
*' and Manilla)." 

This extract is taken from the Hwang 
tsing chih kung too, or the Register of the 
Tribute as recorded under the present dy- 




nasty (JMemoirs^ 1. c. p. 10 v. , p. 11 r.). I 

am not sure if Ke tsew (10,869) km 
(6,063) Leu song, can really be translated 
by the words — they are assembled together 
and stay in Leu song. The use of tsew in 
the place of tseu (10,826) is confirmed by 
the authorities in Kang he ; but does Leu 
song really mean Spain ? The Philippinas 
are called Leu song (Luzon), from the 
island whereon Manilla is, and in oppo- 
sition to Spain (Ta Leu song, the great 
L. Seao Leu song, the small Leu 
song. It may be doubted whether Leu 
song without Ta, great, can be taken for 
Spain. The Chinese have moreover learn- 
ed from Mattheeus Ricci the proper name 
of Spain, and write it She pan ya. The 
Dutch, the English, and the Germans, 
are, from a reddish colour of their hair, 
called Hung maou. This peculiar colour of 
the hair found among people of German 
origin, is often spoken of by the ancient 



Roman authors ; as for instance in Taci- 
tus, Germaiiia, c. 4. Juvenal says , Sat. 
XIII. V. 164, 

Caerula quis stupuit Germani lumina ? Jlavam 
Ccesariem, et madido torquentem cornua cirro ? 

It would carry us too far at present to 
translate the statements of the Chinese 
concerning the Portuguese and Dutch. 
Under the head of Se yang, or Portugal, 
may be read an extract of the account of 
Europe (Gow lo pa) the Chinese received 
by Paulus Matthseus Ricci (Le ma paou). 
The Chinese know that the European Uni- 
versities are divided into four faculties ; 
and his Excellency Yuen is aware of the 
great similarity between the ceremonies 
of the Buddhists and those of the Roman 
Catholic church (1. c. 17 v). The present 
Translator of the "History of the Pirates" 
intends to translate the whole of the 57th 
book of the often-quoted Memoirs, and 
to subjoin copious extracts of other works, 



particularly from the Hae kivo keen keen 
luh, or " Memoirs concerning the Empires 
suiTounded by the Ocean." This very 
interesting small work is divided into two 
books ; one containing the text, and the 
other the maps. The text consists of 
eight chapters, including a description of 
the sea-coast of China, with a map, con- 
structed on a large scale, of the nations 
to the east, the south-east, and the south ; 
then follows a topography of Portugal and 
Europe generally. Concerning England 
we find : ― 

The Kingdom of the Ying keih k, or English. 
" The kingdom of the Ying keih k is a de- 
" pendent or tributary state* to Ho Ian (Hol- 

• This statement is so extraordinary, that the Translator thought 
it necessary to compare many passages where the character shuh 
(8384 M.) occurs. Shiih originally means, according to the Shivo 
ivan, near, joining ; and Sh^h kwo, are, according to Dr. Morrison, 
<' small states attached to and dependent on a larger one : tributary 
states." The character shuh is often used in the same significa- 
tion in the 57th book of our work. The description of the 
Peninsula of Malacca begins (Mem. b. 57, p. 15 r.) with the 



" land). Their garments and manners in eating 
" and drinking are the same. This kingdom 
" is rather rich. The males use much cloth 
" and like to drink wine. The females, before 
" marriage, bind the waist, being desirous to 
" look slender ; their hair hangs in curls over 
" the neck ; they use a short garment and 
(( petticoats, but dress in a larger cloth when 
" they go out. They take snuff out of boxes 
" made from gold and threads." 

This extract is taken from the " Rcgis- 
te7' of the Tribute as recorded under the 
present dynasty." 

" Ying keih le is a kingdom composed of three 
" islands : it is in the middle of four kingdoms, 

following words : " Mican la kea (Malacca) is in the southern 
sea, and was originally a tributary state (shuh kwo) of Seen lo, or 
Si am ; but the officer who there had the command revolted and 
founded a distinct kingdom." In the war which the Siamese some 
years back carried on against the Sultan of Guedah, they always 
affirmed that the King of Siam is, by his own right, the legiti- 
mate sovereign of the whole peninsula of Malacca, and that the 
Sultan must only be considered as a rebel against his liege. The 
statement of the Chinese author, therefore, corroborates the asser- 
tions of the Siamese. 



" called Lin ybi :* Hwang ke, the yellow flag 
" (Denmark), Ho Ian, and Fo lang se. The 
" Great Western Ocean (Europe) worships the 
" Lord of Heaven ; and there are, firstly, 
" She pan ya (Spain), Poo keuh ya (Portugal), 
" the yellow flag, &c. ; but there are too many 
" kingdoms to nominate them one by one. Ying 
" keih le is a kingdom which produces silver, 
" woollen cloths ,卞 camlets, peih ke, or English 
" cloth, called long ells,J glass, and other 
" things of this kind." 

This extract is taken from the Hae kwo 
keen keen luh, book i. p. 34 v. 35 r ; and 
I am sorry to see that in the " Memoirs" 
it is abbreviated in such a manner that 
the sense is materially changed. 

• On the General Map of the Western Sea (Se hae tsung too) 
Lin yin takes the place of Sweden. I cannot conceive what can 
be the cause of that denomination. Lin yin, perhaps, may 
mean the island Rugen ? 

t The common word for cloth, to lo ne, seems to be of Indian 
origin ; it is certainly not Chinese. The proper Chinese name is 

X Peih ke is written with various characters. See Morrison's 
Dictionary, under the word Peih, 8509. 



" Ying keih le," says the author of the Hue kwo 

hten k'ten liih (1. c), is a realm composed out 

" of three islands. To the west and the north 

" of the four kingdoms of Lin yin, the Yellow 

" Jiag, Holan, and Fo lang se, is the ocean. From 

" Lin yin the ocean takes its direction to the 

" east, and surrounds Go lo sse (Russia) ; and 

" from Go lo sse, yet more to the east, Se me le 

" (Siberia?). Through the northern sea you can- 

" not sail; the sea is frozen, and does not 

" thaw, and for this reason it is called the 

" Frozen Ocean. From Lin yin, to the south, 

" are the various empires of the Woo and Kwei 

" (Crows and Demons), and they all belong 

" to the red-haired people of the Great Western 

" Ocean. On the west and on the north there 

" are different barbarians under various names ; 

" but they are, in one word, similar to the 
" Go lo sse (Russians), who stay in the metro- 
" polis (Pekin). It is said that the Kaon chun 
" peih mow (?) are similar to the inhabitants of 
the Middle Empire ; they are of a vigorous 
*' body and an ingenious mind. All that they 



" produce is fine and strong ; their attention is 
" directed to making fire-arms. They make 
" researches in astronomy and geography, and 
" generally they do not marry. Every king- 
" dom has a particular language, and they greet 
" one another by taking off the hat. They 
" worship," &c. (The same as p. xxx.) 

My copy of the Hae kwo keen keen luh 
was printed in the province Che keang, 
in the year 1794. 

" In the narrative regarding foreign countries, 
" and forming part of the history of the Ming, 
" the English are called Yen go le ; in the Hae 
" kwo keen keen luh, Ying ke le (5272, 6950); 
" but in the maps the name is now always 
" written Ymg keih fc (5018, 6947). In express- 
" ing the sound of words we sometimes use 
" different characters. This kingdom lies to the 
" west of Gow lopa (Europa), and was originally 
" a tributary state to Ho Ian (Holland) ; but in 
" the course of time it became richer and more 
" powerful than Ho Ian, and revolted. These 



kingdoms are, therefore, enemies. It is not 
known at what time the Ying' keih le grasped 
the country of North O mo le kea (America), 
which is called Kea no (Canada). Great 
Ying keih le is a kingdom of Gow lo pa 
(Europe.)* In the twelfth year of Yung ching 
(1735), they came the first time to Canton 
for trade. Their country produces wheat, 
with which they trade to all the neighbour- 
ing countries. They are generally called 
Keang heb (that is, English ships from India, 
or country ships), and there arrive many 

This extract is taken from the Tan chay 
Keen keen luh, and it is all that we find 
regarding England in the Memoirs con- 
cerning the south of the Meiling Moun- 
tains (p. 18 r. v.). In the latter extract, 
the author appears to confound the coun- 
try trade of India and China with that cf 

• The syllable lo is not in the Chinese text, as it is supposed, by 
a mistake of the printer. 




the mother country. England is again 
mentioned in the notice regarding Me le 
keih (America), taken out of Yuen's 
History of Canton. It is there said, that 
the Me le keih passed, in the 52d year of 
Keen lung (1788), the Bocca Tigris, and 
that they then separated from the Ying 
keih le (p. 19 r.) At the end of the ex- 
tract concerning the Americans (p. 190) 
we read the following words : 

" The characters which are used in the writ- 
" ing's of these realms are, according to the 
" statements of Ma lo ko, twenty-sU' ; all sounds 
" can be sufficiently expressed by these cha- 
" meters. Every realm has large and small 
" characters ; they are called La ting cha- 
" racters, and La te na (Latin) characters." 

It is pleasing to observe that his Ex- 
cellency Yuen had some knowledge of 
Dr. Morrison's Dictionary. In the third 
part of his Dictionary, Dr. Morrison has 
given, in Chinese, a short and clear notice 



concerning the European alphabet. Yuen 
seems to have taken his statements from 
this notice, and to have written the name 
of the author, by a mistake, Ma lo ko, 
for Ma le so, as Dr. Morrison is gene- 
rally called by the Chinese. 

The Man ying, the Double Eagle, or 

" The Man ying passed the Bocca Tigris the 
" first time in the 45th year of Keen lung (1 78 1), 
" and are called Ta chen {Teutcheri). They 
" have accepted the religion of the Lord of 
" Heaven. In customs and manners they are 
" similar to the Se yang, or Portuguese ; they 
" are the brethren of the Tan ying, or Single 
" eagle kingdom (Prussia) ; in difficulties and 
" distress they help one another. Their ships 
" which came to Canton had a white flag, on 
" which an eagle was painted with two heads." 

This extract is taken from the History 
of Yuen, I take the liberty to observe, 
that the Chinese scholar must be careful 



not to take the Sui chen, or Chen kwo (the 
Swedes), for the Ta chen (the Teutcheii). 
In the Memoirs, 1. c. p. 19 v., we read the 
following notice on the Chen kwo (the 
Swedes) : 

" The Che?i realm is also called Tan (Den- 
" mark) realm, and now the yellow flag. This 
'( country is opposite to that of the Ho Ian, and 
" a little farther off from the sea. There are 
" two realms called Sui chen, and they border 
" both on the Go lo sse, or Russia. They 
" passed the Bocca Tigris the first year of 
" Keen lung (1765)." 

The Tan ying, the Single Eagle or Prussians. 

" The Tan ying passed the Bocca Tigris the 
" 52d year of Keen lung (1788.) They live 
'( to the west and north of the Man ying (Aus- 
" trians). In customs and manners they are 
" similar to them. On their ships flies a white 
" flag, on which an eagle is painted." 

This last extract is also taken from 



the History of Canton, published by his 
Excellency Yuen. 

If we consider how easily the Chinese 
could procure information regarding fo- 
reign countries during the course of the 
two last centuries, and then see how 
shamefully they let pass all such oppor- 
tunities to inform and improve them- 
selves, we can only look upon these 
proud slaves of hereditary customs with 
the utmost disgust and contempt. The 
ancient Britons and Germans had no 
books ; yet what perfect descriptions of 
those barbarian nations have been handed 
down to us by the immortal genius of 
Tacitus ! Montesquieu says, that " in 
Caesar and Tacitus we read the code of 
barbarian laws ; and in the code we read 
Caesar and Tacitus." In the statement 
of the modern Chinese regarding foreign 
nations, we see, on the contrary, both 
the want of enquiry, and the childish 



remarks of unenlightened and unculti 
vated minds.* 

• It may be remarked, thatCosmas, about the middle of the sixth 
century, had a better idea concerning the Chinese empire, or the 
country of Tsin, than the Chinese have even now of Europe. Such an 
advantage was it to be born a Greek and not a Chinese. Cosmas 
seems very well informed concerning' the articles of trade which 
the Chinese generally bring to Serendib, or Serendwtpa (Ceylon). 
He remarks, that farther than China there exists no other country ; 
that on the east it is surrounded by the ocean ; and that Ceylon is 
nearly as far from the Persian gulf as from Tziniza or China. 
See the description of Taprobane, taken from the Christian To- 
pography, and printed in Thevenot " Relations de divers Voyages," 
vol. i, pp. 2, 3, and 5. The Chinese about Canton have a custom 
of ending every phrase with a long* a (a is pronounced like a in 
Italian) which is merely euphonic, like yay (11980) in the Man- 
darine dialect. If a Chinese should be asked about his country, 
he would answer according to the different dynasties, Tsin-a, 
Han-a, Tang^-a, Ming--a, &c. Tsin-a is probably the origin of 
Tziniza, It is a little strange that Rennel takes no notice of 
the statements of Cosmas. (See the Geographical System of 
Herodotus 1. 223, Second Edition, London, 1830.) Is it not 
very remarkable, that this merchant and monk seems to have also 
had very correct information concerning the north -、 vest frontier 
of China, and of the conquest which the Huns (in Sanscrit Huna) 
have made in the north-west part of Hindostan? He reckons 
from China, throug:h Tartary and Bactria to Persia, 150 stations, 
or days' journies. About the time of Cosmas, an intercourse 
commenced between China and Persia, 


In the summer of the year Ke sze 
(1809),* I returned from the capital, and 
having passed the chain of mountains ,十 
I learned the extraordinary disturbances 
caused by the Pirates. When I came home 
I saw with mine own eyes all the calami- 
ties; four villages were totally destroy- 
ed ; the inhabitants collected together 

• In prefaces and rhetorical exercises, the Chinese commonly 
call the years by the names employed in the well-known cycle of 
sixty years. The first cycle is supposed to have beg-un with the 
year 2697 before Christ. In the year 1804, the ninth year of Kea 
king, was the beginning of the thirty-sixth cycle. ― Histoire gene- 
rale de la Chine, XII. p. 3 and 4, 

t The Mei ling mountains, which divide the province Kwang- 
tung" from the province Keang" so. See Note in the bepiiininp^ of 
the History of the Pirates. 



and made preparations for resistance. 
Fighting at last ceased on seas and 
rivers : families and villages rejoiced, and 
peace was every where restored. Hearing 
of our naval transactions, every man de- 
sired to have them written down in a his- 
tory ; but people have, until this day, 
looked in vain for such a work. 

Meeting once, at a public inn in Wham- 
po,* with one Yuen tsze, we conversed 
together, when he took a volume in his 
hand, and asked me to read it. On open- 
ing the work, I saw that it contained a 
History of the Pirates ; and reading it 
to the end, I found that the occurrences 
of those times were therein recorded 
from day to day, and that our naval trans- 
actions are there faithfully reported. 
Yuen tsze supplied the defect I stated 

• The place where European ships lie at anchor in the river of 
Canton, and one of the few spots which foreigners are allowed to 



before, and anticipated what had occu- 
pied my mind for a long time. The affairs 
concerning the robber are described by 
the non-official historian Lan e, in his Tsing 
yih k€, viz. in the History of the Pacifi- 
cation of the Robbers.^ Respectfully look- 
ing to the commands of heaven, Lan e 

* I translate the Chinese words Wae she, by noii-official historimij 
in opposition to the Kivo she, or She kwan, the official historiogra- 
phers of the empire. Both Yum tsze, author of the following' 
History of the Pirates, and Lcni author of the work which is re- 
ferred to in the preface, are such Piihlic historians ^ who write — like 
most of the historians of Europe ― the history of their own times, 
M'ithout being appointed to or paid for by government. 

Lan € gives the history of the civil commotions under Kea king, 
which continued from the year 1814 to 1817, in six books; the 
work is printed in two small volumes, in the first year of Tao 
kwang (1820), and the following contains the greater part of the 
preface : 

" In the spring of the year Kea sit (1814), T went with other 
people to Peking ; reaching the left side of the (Mei ling-) moun- 
tains we met with fellow travellers, who joined the army, and with 
many military preparations. In the capital I learned that the 
robber Lin caused many disturbances ; I took great care to ascer- 
tain what was said by the people of the court, and by the officers 
of government, and I wrote down what T heard. But being ap- 
prehensive that I might publish truth and falsehood mixed toge- 
ther, I went in the year Ting chow (1817) again to the metropolis, 
and read attentively the imperial account of the Pacification of the 
RoJjber -bands, planned the occurrences accordinp; to the time in 
which they happened, j Dined to it what I heard from other 




made known, for all future times, the 
faithful and devoted servants of govern- 
ment. Yuen tsze's work is a supplement 
to the History of the Pacification of the 
Robbers, and you may rely on whatever 
therein is reported, whether it be of great 
or little consequence. Yuen tsze has 
overlooked nothing ; and I dare to say, 
that all people will rejoice at the publi- 
cation. Having written these introduc- 
tory lines to the said work, I returned it 
to Yuen tsze * 

sources, and composed out of these various matters a work in six 
books, on the truth of which you may rely." 

Lan e begins his work with the history of those rebels called 
Teen le keaou {the Doctrine of Nahire). They were divided into 
eight divisions, according to the eight Kwas, and placed under 
three captains, or chiefs, of whom the first was called Lin tsing ~ 
the same Lin who is mentioned in the preface of Soo. These fol- 
lowers of the doctrine of Nature believed implicitly in an absurd 
book written by a robber, in which it was stated, that the Buddha 
who should come after Shakia (in Chinese called Me Ith, in San- 
scrit Ma'etreya) is in possession of three seas, the blue, the red, 
and the white. These seas are the three Kalpas ; we now live in 
the white Kalpa. These robbers, therefore, carried white banners. 
Tsing yili ke, B. i., p. i. 

• The Translator thinks it his duty to observe, that this preface, 



Written at the time of the fifth summer 
moon, the tenth year of Tao kwang, 
called Kang yin (September 1830). 

A respectful Preface of Ying king Soo, 
from Peili keang. 

being- printed in characters written in the current hand, he tried in 
vain to make out some abbreviations ; he is, therefore, not quite 
certain if the last phrase beginning with the words : " Yuen tsze 
has overlooked nothing," &c. be correctly translated. 


My house being near the sea, we were, 
during the year Ke sze of Kea king (1809), 
disturbed by the Pirates. The whole coast 
adjoining to our town was in confusion, 
and the inhabitants dispersed ; this last- 
ing for a long time, every man felt an- 
noyed at it. In the year Kang yin (1830) 
I met with Yuen tsze yung lun at a pub- 
lic inn within the walls of the provincial 

• The names of authors of Prefaces, as well as of works them- 
selves, which are not authorized by govermuent, are often ficti- 
tious. Who would dare to publish or recoiuinend anv thing' under 
liis own name, which could displease any of the officers of the 
Chinese government ? The author of the following' Preface has a 
high-sounding title : " He, whose heart is directed towards the 



metropolis (Canton). He showed me his 
History of the Pacification of the Pirates, 
and asked me to write a Preface to the 
work ; having been a schoolfellow of his 
in my tender age, I could not refuse his 
request. Opening and reading the volume, 
I was moved with recollections of occur- 
rences ill former days, and I was pleased 
with the diligence and industry of Yuen 
keu7i* The author was so careful to 
combine what he had seen and heard, 
that I venture to say it is an historical 
work on which you may rely. 

We have the collections of former his- 
torians, who in a fine style described things 
as they happened, that by such faithful 
accounts the world might be governed, 
and the minds of men enlightened. 

• Kcun, or Tsze, are only titles, like those of Master and 
Doctor in the European languages. Keun is, in the Canton dialect, 
pronounced Kwa, 、vhk'h, placed behind the family names of the 
Hong, or Hivtj (3909) merchants, gives How qu'n, or II 謂 kwa, 
Moiv Jam, wliicli literally means " Mr. How, Mr. Mow." 



People may learn by these vast collec- 
tions * what should be done, and what 
not. It is, therefore, desirable that 
facts may be arranged in such a man- 
ner, that books should give a faithful 
account of what happened. There are 
magistrates who risk their life, excel- 
lent females who maintain their virtue, 
and celebrated individuals who pro- 
tect their native places with a strong 
hand ; they behave themselves valiantly, 
and overlook private considerations, if 
the subject concerns the welfare of the 
people at large. Without darkness, there 
is no light ; without virtue, there is no 
splendour. In the course of time we have 

• I presume that the author of the Preface alludes to the twenty- 
three large historical collections, containing the official publica- 
tions regarding history and general literature. I have brought 
with me from Canton this vast collection of works, which are now 
concluded by the History of the Ming. It must be acknowledged 
that no other nation has, or had, such immense libraries devoted 
to history and geography. The histories of ancient Greece and 
Rome are pamphlets in comparison with the Url shih son she of 
the Chinese. 



heard of many persons of such qualities ; 
but how few books exist by which the 
authors benefit their age ! 

This is the Preface respectfully written 
by King chung ho, called Sin joo min* 
at the time of the second decade, the 
first month of the autumn, the year Kang 
yin (September 1830) of Tao kwang. 卞 

• See the first Note to this preface. 

t In the original Chinese now follows a sort of Introduction, or 
Contents {Fan le), which I thought not worth translating-. It is 
written by the author of the History of the Pacification of the Pi- 
rates, who signs by his title Jang seen. 






There have been pirates from the oldest (1 r ) 
times in the eastern sea of Canton ; they arose 
and disappeared alternately, but never were they 
so formidable as in the years of Kea king,* at 
which time, being closely united together, it was 
indeed very difficult to destroy them. Their 
origin must be sought for in Annam.f In the 

• This prince was declared Emperor on the 8th February 1796, 
by his father the Emperor Keen lung, who then retired from the 
management of public affairs. ― Voyage of the Dutch Embassy to 
China, in 1794-5 ; London edition, I. 223. Kea king died on the 
2d of September 1820, being* sixty-one years of age. His second 
son ascended the Imperial throne six days after the death of his 
father ; the years of his reign were first called Yum hwuy, but 
soon changed to Taou kwang 一 Illustriovs Reason, Indo-Chinese 
Gleaner, vol. iii, 41. 

t Annam (Chinese, An nan) comprehends the country of Cochin- 
China and Tungking. There have been many disturbances in 
- G 



year fifty-six of Keen lung (1792), a certain 
Kwang ping yuen, joined by his two brothers, 
Kwang e and Kwang kwo, took Annam by force, 
(1 V.) and expelled its legitimate king Wei ke le.* 
Le retired into the province Kwang se, and was 
made a general by our government. But his 
younger brother Fuh ying came in the sixth year 
of Kea king (1802) with an army from Siam and 
Laos ,卞 and killed Kwang ping' in a great battle. 

these countries within the last fifty years. The English reader 
may compare the interesting historical sketch of modern Cochin- 
China in Barrow's Voyage to Cochin- China, p. 250. 

• The origin of this family may be seen in a notice of Cochin- 
china and Tung king by father Gaubil, in the " Lettres Edifiantes/' 
and in the last volume of the French translation of the Kangniuh. 
Annam had been conquered by Chinese colonies, and its civili- 
zation is therefore Chinese. This was already stated in Tavernier's 
masterly description of Tunking, " Recueil de plusieurs Rela- 
tions," Paris, I679, p. 168. Leyden, not knowing Chinese, has 
made some strange mistakes in his famous dissertation regarding 
the languages and literature of Indo-Chinese nations. Asiatic 
Researches, vol, x. 271, London edition, 181 丄. 

个 In Chinese Lung lae (7402, 6866 Mor.) ; this name is taken 
from the metropolis of this kingdom, called by the European 
travellers in the beginning of the seventeenth century, Laniam、 
Lanianghy or Lanshang. Robt. Kerr, General History and Col- 
lection of Voyages and Travels, Edinburgh, 1813, vol. viii. 446, 
449. ― The Burmas call this country Layn-sayn ; " Buchanan on 
the Religion and Literature of the Burmas." Asiatic Researches, 
vol. ii. 226, London edition, 1810, 4to. The kingdom of Laos 
was conquered about the end of the year 1828, by the Siamese ; the 



The son of the usurper, called King sliing, 
went on board a ship with the minister Yew 
kin meih, and Meih joined the pirates, Ching 
tsih, Tung hae pa, and others, who rambled 
about these seas at this time. The pirate Ching 
tsih was appointed a king's officer, under the 
name of master of the stables. King shing, re- 
lying on the force of his new allies, which con- 
sisted of about two hundred vessels, manned (2 r.) 
with a resolute and warlike people, returned in 
the twelfth moon of the same year (1803) into 
that country with an armed force, and joined 
by Ching tsih, at night time took possession of 
the bay of Annam. The legitimate king Fuh 
ying collected an army, but being beaten re- 
peatedly, he tried in vain to retire to Laos. 

king, his two principal wives, his sons, and grandsons, amount- 
ing in all to fourteen persons, were cruelly killed at Bangkok. The 
Protestant missionaries, Thomlin and GuzlafF, saw nine of the 
relations of the king in a cage at Bangkok, the 30th of January, 
1829. The First Report of thi; Singapore Christian Union, Singa- 
pore, 1830, Appendix xv. Is Lang lae a mistake for ZfiA lae, 
which is mentioned in the Hae kwo hem keen, p. 214 ? There 
occurs no Lung lae in this 、、- ork ; where the Indo-Chinese nations 
are described under the title Nan yan she ; i. e. History of the 
Southern ocean. 



Cliing tsih being a man who had lived all his 
life on the water, behaved himself, as soon 
as he got possession of the bay of An nam, in 
■ a tyrannical way to the inhabitants ; he took 
what he liked, and, to say it in one word, his 
will alone was law. His followers conducted 
themselves in the same manner ; trusting to 
their power and strength, they were cruel and 
violent against the people ; they divided the 
whole population among themselves, and took 
their wives and daughters by force. The in- 
habitants felt very much annoyed at this be- 
haviour, and attached themselves more strongly 
to Full ying. They fixed a day on which some 
of the king's officers should make an attack on 
the sea-side, while the king himself with his 
general was to fight the van of the enemy, the 
(2 V.) people to rise en masse, and to run to arms, in 
order that they should be overwhelming by 
their numbers. Fiih ying was delighted at these 
tidings, and on the appointed day a great battle 
was fought, in which Ching tsih not being able 
to superintend all from the rear-guard to the 
Vein, and the people pressing besides very hard 



towards the centre, he was totally vanquished 
and his army destroyed . He himself died of a 
wound which he received in the battle. His 
younger brother Ching yih, the usurper, King- 
shing, and his nephew Pang shang, with many 
others ran away. Ching yl'h, their chief, joined 
the pirates with his followers, who in these times 
robbed and plundered on the ocean indiscrimi- 
nately. This was a very prosperous period for 
the pirates. So long as Wang peaou remained 
admiral in these seas, all was peace and quietness 
both on the ocean and the sea-shore. The ad- 、 
miral gained repeated victories over the ban- (3 r.) 
dits ; but as soon as Wang peaou died, the 
pirates divided themselves into different squa- 
drons, which sailed under various colours. 
There existed six large squadrons, under dif- 
ferent flags, the red, the yellow, the green, the 
blue, the black, and the white. These wasps 
of the ocean were called after their different 
commanders, Ching yih ^ Woo die tsing, Meih yew 
kin, O po tai, L'cang paou, and Le shang ts'wg. 
To every one of these large squadrons belonged 
smaller ones, commanded by a deputy. Woo 



che tsing, whose nick-name was Tung hac pa, 
the Scourge of the Eastern Sea,* was comman- 
der of the yellow flag, and Le tsung hoo his de- 
puty. Meih yew kin and Neaou shih, who for 
this reason was called Bird and st07ie, were the 
commanders of the blue flag, and their deput es 
Meih's brethren, Yew kwei and Yew kee. A 
certain Hae kang and another person Hwang ho, 
were employed as spies. O po tai, who afterwards 
changed his name to Lustre of instruction, was 
(3 V.) the commander of the black flag, and Ping yung 
ta, Chang jih keaou, and O tsew he, were his 
deputies. Leang paou, nicknamed Tsung ping 
paou. The jewel of the whole crew, was the com- 

* People livings in the same state of society, have usually the 
same customs and manners. It is said of the celebrated Bucca- 
neers, that they laid aside their surnames, and assumed nicknames, 
or martial names. Many, however, on their marrying, took care 
to have their real surnames inserted in the marriage contract ; and 
this practice gave occasion to a proverb still current in the French 
Antilles, a man is not to be known till he, takes a wife. See the 
Voyages and Adventures of William Dampier, and History of 
the Buccaneers, p. 87. Women cut the characters for common 
Chinese books ; and, therefore, the Chinese say, so many mistakes 
are found in ordinary publications. The character pa (8123) in 
Tung hae pa is by such a mistake always written pih (8527). 

t He called himself Heo been (3728, 3676,) after having received 
a recompense from government for his robberies. Sec p. 75. 



mander of the white flag. Le shang tsing, nick- 
named The frog's meal, was the commander of 
the green ; and Ching yih of the red flag. 
Every flag was appointed to cruise in a parti- 
cular channel. There was at this time a gang 
of robbers in the province Fo keen, known by 
the name of Kwei keen (6760, 5822) ; they 
also joined the pirates, who became so nume- 
rous that it was impossible to master them. We 
must in particular mention a certain Chang paou, 
a notorious character in after- times. Under 
Chang paou were other smaller squadrons, com- 
manded by Suh ke Ian (nicknamed Both odour 
and mountain ) Leang po paou, Suh puh gow, 
and others. Chang paou himself belonged to 
the squadron of Ching yih saou, or the wife of 
Ching yih* so that the red flag alone was 
stronger than all the others united together. 

There are three water passages or channels (4 r.) 
along the sea - shore, south of the Meiling 
mountains ;卞 one goes eastward to Hwy and 

• Our author anticipates here a little ; this will be clear by a 
subsequent paragraph, p. 13. 

十 Shan is a mountain in Chinese ; Ling is a chain of mountains 
or sierra. The Chinese geographers say, the Meiling mountain 


Chaou^ ; the other westward to Kao, Leen^ Luy 

branches out like a tree ; and they describe in particular)' two, 
the south-east and the south-west branches from Canton. They 
speak likewise of Woo Ling, or five sierras, in reference to five 
different passes by which these mountains are divided ; but there 
are now more passes. See a compilation, already quoted, regard- 
ing Canton, made by order of the former governor Vuen, and 
printed at Canton last year, 1830, in eighty books, under the title 
Ling nan y ung shuh : i.e. Memoirs regarding the South of the 
Sierra^hook 5, vol. ii, p. 1. 

• The Chinese possess itineraries and directories for the whole 
empire, for every province, and for every large town or place ; T 
shall therefore always extract the notices which are to be found in 
the Itinerary of the Province Kwmig tung (Kivang tung tsuen too、) 
referring* to the places mentioned in our text. 

Hwy is Hwy chow foo, from Pekin 6365 le, and easterly from 
Canton 400 le ; one town of the second, and ten towns of the 
third rank are appended to this district-metropolis. The whole 
district pays 14,321 leang*, or tael. Here is the celebrated Lo 
fotv mountain. Lo fow consists really of two united mountains, of 
which one is called Lo and the other Foiv, said to be three thou- 
sand six hundred chang in height, or 36,000 feet (? ). The circum- 
ference is about 500 le. Here are the sixteen caverns where the 
dragon dwells, spoken of in the books of the Tao sect. You meet 
on these mountains with bamboo from seventy to eighty feet in 
circumference, Kwang tung tsuen too, p. 5v. 、 

Chaou is Chaou chow foo、 from Pekin 8,540 and easterly from 
Canton 1,740 le ; eleven towns of the third rank belong to it. The 
whole district pays 65,593 leang, or tael. A tael is equal to 
5*798 decimal, troy weight ; and in the East-India Company's ac- 
counts the tael of silver is reckoned at six shillings and eight- 
pence sterling. Foo is the Chinese name for the first class of 
towns ; Chow for the second, Heen for the third. I sometimes 
have translated Chow by district-town, and Heen by borough, or 


Ktiuig, Kin, T(m, Yac and Wan ; * and a third 
between these two, to Kwang and Chow/\ The 

• Kaou is Kaon chow foo, from Pekin 7,767 > north-west from Can- 
ton 930 le ; the district, and five towns of the third class, paying 
together 62,566 leang, are dependent on the district-metropolis. 

L'em is Leen chmv fooy from Pekin 9,0G5, from Canton 1,515 le ; 
the district and two towns, paying together 1,681 leang ;, are de- 
pendent on the district-metropolis. 

Luy is Luychow foo^ from Pekin 8,210, westerly from Canton 
1,380 le ; the district and its towns, paying together 13,70(1 leang, 
are dependent on the district-metropolis. 

Keiing is Keung chow foG、 the capital of the island Hae nan 
or Hainan, from Pekin 9,690, south-west from Canton 1,680 le ; 
three district towns, and ten towns of the third class, paying to- 
gether 89,447 leang;, are dependent on this capital. There is a 
town also called Keung shari heeiij and both town and capital take 
their name from the mountain Keimg. 

Kin is Kin chow, dependent on Z^V« chow foo、 and far from it 
140 le. 

Tun is Tan chowy a town of Hainan, south-west from the capital 
370 le; the area of the town is 31 le. 

Yae is Yae chow, a town of Hainan, southerly from the capital 
of the island 1,114 le. About this town many pirates have their 
lurking-place. This circumstance may have caused the mistake 
of Captain Krusenstern, stating that in A.D. 1805, the pirates 
who infest the coast of China had obtained possession of the 
whole island of Hainan. 

fi^nn is JVan choK、 a town of Hainan, in a south-easterly di- 
rection from the capital of the island 470 le. 

t Kwang is Kivang tung sang^ or the metropolis of the province 
Kwanfr tung" (Canton). Ten departments (foo), nine districts 
(chow), and seventy-eight towns of the third class (heen), are depen- 
dent on the provincial city, and pay together in land-tax 1,2/2,6% 
leang', excise 47,-^10 leang*, and in other miscclluneous taxes 




ocean surrounds these passages, and here trad- 
ing vessels from all the world meet together, 
wherefore this track is called " The great meet- 

5,990 leang. The import duties from the sea-side with measure- 
ment of foreign vessels is said in the Kwang tung tsuen too, 
p. 3v, to amonnt to 43,750 leang;. All duties together of the 
province of Canton amount to 1,369,946 taels, about ^450,000, 
The 】ists of population gave last October (1830) 23,000,000 (?) 
for the whole province, and we now see that the Chinese pay 
less duties (every inhabitant about fourpence halfpenny) than 
the population of any country of Europe. I received the popu- 
lation lists from Ahong, an intelligent Chinese, well known to the 
English residents at Canton, Distance from Pekin about 6,835 le. 

The subject concerning' the population of China, and the 
amount of the land-rerity the poll-tax, and other miscellaneous 
taxes, is surrounded by so many difficulties, that the writer of this 
dares not to affirm any thing* about these matters until he has 
perused the neu'- edition of Toy tsing hwy teen. For the present 
he will merely remark, that in book 141, p. 38, of the said work, 
the population of China Proper for the year 1793 is reckoned 
at 307,467,200. If we add to this number the population of 
Chinese Tartary, it 、rill certainly amount to the round number 
of 333,000,000, as reported by Lord Macartney. 

Chmv is chow kiyigfoo, from Pekin about 4,720, north-west from 
Canton 360 le. There is certainly some mistake in the Chinese 
Itinerary; how could Canton be only 6,835, and 、 Chow king foo 
7420 le? The imperial edition of the Tay tsing- hwy teen (book 
122, p. 6 、'•) only gives 5,494 le as the distance from Canton 
to Pekin ; there seems to be a different sort of le. The district 
and eleven towns of the third class, paying together 162,392 leang 
depend on the district metropolis. 

With the aid of the Chinese Itineraries and the new edition of 
the Tay tsing hwy teen (printed 1797, in 360 large volumes) it would 
be an easy task to compile a " Chinese Gazetteer." 


hig from the east and the south." The piratical 
squadrons dividing* between them the water 
passages and the adjoining coasts, robbed and 
carried away all that fell into their hands. Both 
the eastern and the middle passage have been 
retained by the three piratical squadrons, Ching 
yih saou, O po tae, and Leang paou ; the western 
passage was under the three others, nicknamed 
Bird and stone. Frog's meal, and the Scourge of the (4 v.) 
eastern sea. Peace and quietness was not 
known by the inhabitants of the sea-coast for 
a period of ten years. On the side from Wei 
chow and Neaou chow * farther on to the sea, the 
passage was totally cut off; scarcely any man 
came hither. In this direction is a small island, -. 
surrounded on all sides by high mountains, 
where in stormy weather a hundred vessels 
find a safe anchorage ; here the pirates retired 
when they could not commit any robberies. 
This land, contains fine paddy fields, and abounds 
in all kinds of animals, flowers, and fruits. This 

• I found no particulars concerning these two small islands 
(Chow signifies island) in the Canton Itinerary ; and I looked in 
vain on the great map of the Chinese sea-coast in the line V.\\ 6 
been keen for iheir position. 



island was the lurking-place of the robbers, 
where they stayed and prepared all the stores 
for their shipping. 

(5 r.) Chang paoii was a native of Sin hwy, near the 
mouth of the river,* and the son of a fisherman. 
Being fifteen years of age, he went with his 
father a fishing in the sea, and they were con- 
sequently taken prisoners by Ching yih, who 
roamed about the mouth of the river, ravaging 
and plundering. Ching yih saw Paou, and 
liked him so much, that he could not depart 
from him. Paou was indeed a clever fellow ― he 
managed all business very well ; being also a 
fine young man, he became a favourite of Ching 
yih, -I" and was made a head-man or captain. It 
happened, that on the seventeenth day of the 
tenth moon, in the twentieth year of Kea king 

1807. (about the end of 1807), Ching yih perished in 

• The town Sin hivy is south-west from Canton 230 le ; its 
area is 138 le (?) and the taxes amount to 28,607 leang. This place 
suffered much from the pirates. I find no proper name for the 
river on which Sin hwy lies in the Chinese maps, it is merely 
called Keang, river. Near this place is the island where the 
last emperor of the Sung cast himself into the sea (1280). 

+ The word pe (8335) cannot be translated in any European 
language. It means a vice common in Asia. 



a hv^avy gale, and his legitimate wife Sink 1807. 
placed the whole crew under the sway of Paou ; 
but so that she herself should be considered 
the Commander of all the squadrons together, 一 
for this reason the division Ching yih was then (5 、,.) 
called Cliiug xfih saou, or the wife of Ching 
yih* Being chief captain, Paou robbed and 
plundered incessantly, and daily increased his 
men and his vessels. He made the three follow- 
ing regulations : 一 
First : 

If any man goes privately on shore, or what 
is called transgressing the bars, he shall be 
taken and his ears be perforated in the presence of 
the whole fleet ; repeating the same act, he shall 
suffer death. ' 

Second : 

Not the least thing shall be taken privately from 
the stolen and plundered goods. All shall be re- 
gistered, and the pirate receive for himself, out of 

• The pirates probably made use of tho term saou (8833) and 
not of tse (10575), because saou written with a different character 
(88.34), is the general term for boats and ships. Paou must be 
considered as the lieutenant or first minister of Mistress Ching, 
she being herself of the family Sliih, 



1807. ten parts, only two; eight 'parts belong to the siore- 
house, called the general fund ; taking any thing 
out of this general fund, without permission , .shall 
be death. 
Third : 

No 'person shall debauch at his pleasure captive 
ivomen taken in the villages and open places, and 
(6 r.) brought on board a ship ; he must first request the 
ships purser for permission y and then go aside in 
the ship's hold. To use violence against any woman, 
or to wed her without permission, shall be punished 
with death * 

That the pirates might never feel want of pro- 
visions, Chang paou gained the country people 
to their interest. It was ordered, that wine, rice, 
and all other goods, should be paid for to the 
villagers ; it was made capital punishment to 
take any thing of this kind by force or without 
paying for it. For this reason the pirates were 
never in want of gunpowder, provisions, and all 

• It will be very interesting to compare the regulations of Paou 
with those of the Buccaneers. When these pirates had got a con- 
siderable booty, each person, holding- up his hand, solemnly pro- 
tested that he had secreted nothing of what he had taken. ― Voy- 
ag-e, I. c. p. 95. 



other necessaries. By this strong discipline the 1807. 
whole crew of the fleet was kept in order. 

The wife of Ching yih was very strict in every 
transaction ; nothing could be done without a 
written application. Anything which had been 
taken, or plundered, was regularly entered on 
the register of the storehouse. The pirates re- 
ceived out of this common fund what they were 
in need of, and nobody dared to have private (6 v.) 
possessions. If on a piratical expedition any 
man left the line of battle, whether by advanc- 
ing or receding, every pirate might accuse him 
at a general meeting, and on being found guilty, 
he was beheaded. Knowing how watchful 
Chang paoii was on every side, the pirates took 
great care to behave themselves well. 、 

The pirates used to call the purser, or secre- 
tary of the storehouse, Ink and writing master ; 
and they called their piratical plunder only a 
transhipping of goods. 

There was a temple in Hwy chow dedicated 
to the spirits of the three mothers * near the sea- 

t The San po (8788, 8608) are national spirits, and, as it seems, 
not connected with Buddhism ; there is a great variety in the 



1807. coast, and many came thither to worship. The 
pirates visited this place whenever they passed it 
with their vessels, pretending to worship ; but 
this was not the case 一 they thought of mischief, 
and had only their business to attend. Once 
they came with the commander at their head, 
as if to worship, but they laid hold on the image 
or statue to take it away. They tried in vain 
from morning to the evening, ― they were all 

(7 ) together not able to move it. Chang' paou 
alone I was able to raise the image, and being- a 
fair wind, he gave order to bring it on board a 
ship. All who were concerned in this transac- 
tion feared to find, from the wrath of the spirit, 
their death in the piratical expeditions. They 
all prayed to escape the vengeance of heaven. 

1808. On the seventh moon of the thirteenth year, 

number of these good old mothers, who by the different emperors 
have been declared saints, or spirits, for the Emperor of China is 
likewise the pope in his empire. Dr. Morrison has an interesting 
article on these old women in his Canton Vocabulary. Kang lie 
mentions only two Po (s. v.), who may be considered as spirits. 
This is a character of which the Buddhists are very fond ; per- 
haps the translator may be wrong, and that San po is merely the 
Sanscrit word Swayani-bhu . 

X Our author shews every where his partiality for Chang paou. 



the naval officer of the garrison at the Bocca 1808. 
Tigris,* Kwo lang lin, sailed into the sea to fight 
the pirates. Chang paou was informed by his 
spies of this officer's arrival, and prepared an 
ambush in a sequestered bay. He met Kwo lang 
on a false attack, with a few vessels only ; but 
twenty- five vessels came from behind, and the 
pirates surrounded Kwo lang's squadron in three (7 v.) 
lines near Ma chow yang.J There followed a 
fierce battle, which lasted from the morning to 
the evening ; it was impossible for Kwo lang to 
break through the enemy's lines, and he deter- 
mined to die fighting. Paou advanced ; but 
Lang fought exceedingly hard against him. He 
loaded a gun and fired it at Paou, who perceiv- 

• The author said just before that the dominion of the pirates 
in the Chinese sea lasted about ten years ; but he only describes 
the transactions of the last three years, when their power and 
strength was at the highest point. He begins to give particulars 
from the 7th moon of the 13th year of Kea king, which corre- 
sponds nearly to the beginning of September 1808. 

t There are three wretched forts at the Hoo mun, the mouth of 
the Canton river, which could scarcely hinder any European vessel 
from passing through. 

J One of the islands marked upon European maps is calletl 
The Ladrones : these Ladrones, so called from (he pirates, have 
aU particular names on Chinese maps. 



1808. ing the gun directed against him, gave way. 
Seeing this, the people thought he was wounded 
and dying ; but as soon as the smoke vanished 
Paou stood again firm and upright, so that all 
thought he was a spirit. The pirates instantly 
grappled Kwo lang's ship ; Paou was the fore- 
most, and Leang* po paou the first to mount 
the vessel; he killed the helmsman, and took 
the ship. The pirates crowded about ; the 
commander Kwo lang engaging with small 
arms, much blood was shed. This murderous 

(8 r.) battle lasted till night time ; the bodies of the 
dead surrounded the vessels on all sides, and 
there perished an immense number of the pirates. 
Between three and five o'clock the pirates had 
destroyed or sunk three of our vessels. The other 
officers of Kwo being afraid that they also might 
perish in the sea, displayed not all their streng th ; 
so it happened that the pirates making a sudden 
attack, captured the whole remaining fifteen 
vessels. Paou wished very much that Kwo 
lang* would surrender, but Lang becoming 
desperate, suddenly seized the pirate by 
the hair, and grinned at him. The pirate 



spoke kindly to him, and tried to soothe him. 1808. 
Lang, seeing himself deceived in his expectation, 
and that he could not attain death by such 
means, committed suicide, 一 being then a man 
of seventy years of age. Paou had really no in- 
tention to put Kwo lang to death, and he was 
exceedingly sorry at what happened. " We (8 v.) 
others," said Paou, " are like vapours dispersed 
by the wind ; we are like the waves of the sea, 
roused up by a whirlwind ; like broken bamboo- 
sticks on the sea, we are floating and sinking 
alternately, without enjoying any rest. Our * 
success in this fierce battle will, after a short 
time, bring the united strength of government 
on our neck. If they pursue us in the different 
windings and bays of the sea ― they have maps 
of them* 一 should we not get plenty to do ? Who 
will believe that it happened not by my com- 
mand, and that I am innocent of the death of 
this officer ? Every man will charge me with 
the wanton murder of a commander, after he had 

• In the first preface of the Hae k\v3 been keen it is particu- 
larly stated, that the map of the sea-coast of China became first 
known to its editor by the expeditions against the pirates. 



1808. been vanquished and his ships taken ? And they 
who have escaped will magnify my cruelty.* If 
I am charged with the murder of this officer, 
how could I venture, if I should wish in future 
times, to submit myself? Would I not be treated 

(9 r.) according to the supposed cruel death of Kwo 

At the time that Kwo lang was fighting very 
bravely, about ten fisher-boats asked of the major 
Pang noo of the town Heang shan ,卞 to lend 
them the large guns, to assist the commander ; 
but the major being afraid these fishermen 
might join the pirates,;]: refused their request. 

* There are, as is stated in my preface, some vulgar or pro- 
vincial characters in this history ; here (p. L) occurs a character not 
to be found in Kanghe, composed out of the fifty-sixth radical and 
the group Leaou or Lew (7061, 7-03). My whole library being* 
locked up in the Custom-house, I am not able to consult a dic- 
tionary of the Canton dialect, therefore the meaning of these 
characters can only be guessed at by etymology. The etymology 
of the characters gives sometimes a better meaning than any dic- 
tionary, and sometimes it may entirely mislead us ; there is no 
reliance on etymology. Usage is the only master of the Chinese, 
as of all other languages, 

t Heang shan is a considerable place between Macao and Can- 
ton. I passed this town in the beginning of October 1830. Dis- 
tance from Canton 150 le in an eastern direction, 

X It Avas, as we have before stated, the policy of Chang paou to 
befriend himself, when possible, with the lower sort of people. 



And thus it happened, that the commander himself 1808. 
perished with many others. There were in the 
battle three of my friends : the lieutenant Tao 
tsae lin, Tseo tang hoo, and Ying tang hwang, 
serving under the former. Lin and Hoo were 
killed, but Hwang escaped when all was sur- 
rounded with smoke, and he it was who told me 
the whole affair. 

On the eighth moon the general Lin fa went 
out as commander to make war against the 
pirates ; but on seeing- that they were so nume- 
rous, he became afraid, and all the other officers 
felt apprehensions ; he therefore tried to retire, 
but the pirates -pursued after, and came up with 
him near a place called Olang pae.* The vessels (9 v.) 
in the front attacked the pirates, who were not able 
to move, for there happened to be a calm. But 
the pirates leaped into the water, and came 
swimming towards our vessels. Our commander 

• Here the author himself says Te ming (9955, 7714) " name of a 
place." To find out the names of places and persons, and distin- 
guish the titles of the different officers employed by government, 
is often a very difficult task. The last character in the nunie of ihis 
place, pae, is very seldom found ; it is the fourth character of the 
division of eight strokes, rad. 177. ― See Kanghe. O is, in the Can- 
ton dialect, commonly pronounced like A, in Italian. 



1808. not being able to prevent this by force, six ves- 
sels were taken ; and he himself, with ten other 
men, were killed by the pirates. 

A very large trading vessel called Teaou fa, 
coming back laden with goods from Annam 
and Tungking,* had a desperate skirmish with 
the pirates. Chang paou, knowing very well 
that he could not take her by force, captured 
two ferry boats, and the pirates concealed them- 
selves therein. Under the mask of ferrymen the 
pirates pursued after, and called upon Teaou fa to 
stop. Fa, confident in her strength, and that 
victory would be on her side, let the ferrymen 
come near, as if she had not been aware of the 

(10 r.) deceit. But as soon as the pirates laid hold of 
the ropes to board her, the trader's crew made a 
vigorous resistance, and the pirates could not 

• These are large vessels with windows, from 200 to 500 tons ; 
they are called by Europeans by the Chinese name, in the Canton 
dialect, junks ; chuen is the Mandarin pronunciation. The foreign 
trade of Cochin-China and Tung king^ is almost exclusively with 
China, that to Siam, Singapur, and Malacca, being inconsiderable. 
The Cochin-Chinese government tried some years ago to open a 
regular trade with Calcutta ; but this undertaking partly failed on 
account of the heavy duties on foreign sugar in the possessions of 
the East-Tndia Company. Sugar is a great article of export in 
Cochin-China and Siam. 



avail themselves of their knives and arrows ― igos. 
guns they had not ― the vessel being too large. 
There were killed about ten hands in attacking 
this vessel, and the pirates retired to their boat ; 
a circumstance which never happened before. 

On the second moon of the fourteenth year, 1809- 
the admiral Tsuen mow sun went on board his 
flag vessel, called Mih teng, and proceeded with 
about one hundred other vessels to attack the 
pirates. They were acquainted with his design 
by their spies, and gathered together round 
Wan shan ; * the admiral following them in four 
divisions. The pirates, confident in their num- 
bers, did not withdraw, but on the contrary 
spread out their line, and made a strong attack. 
Our commander looked very lightly on them, (10 v.) 
yet a very fierce battle followed, in which many- 
were killed and wounded. The ropes and sails 
having been set on fire by the guns ,卞 the pirates 

• On the large map of the coast of China from Corea to Cochin- 
China, called Yuen (12542) hae tsuen too, this place is called Lao 
wan shan, " the old ten thousand mountains," and is exactly oppo 
site to the Bocca Tigris in a direct southerly direction. 

t The sails of Chinese vessels are often called Mats, for they are 
really nothing else than matting, 



1809. became exceeding afraid and took them away. 
The commander directed his fire against the 
steerage, that they might not be able to steer their 
vessels. Being very close one to the other, the 
pirates were exposed to the fire of all the four 
lines at once. The pirates opened their eyes in 
astonishment and fell down ; our commander 
advanced courageously, laid hold of their vessels, 
killed an immense number of men, and took 
about two hundred prisoners. There was a 
pirate's wife in one of the boats, holding so fast 
by the helm that she could scarcely be taken 
away. Having two cutlasses, she desperately 
defended herself, and wounded some soldiers ; 
but on being wounded by a musket-ball, she 

(11 r.) fell back into the vessel and was taken prisoner. 
About this time, when the red squadron was 
assembled in Kwang chow wan, or the Bay of 
Kwang chow, Tsuen mow sun went to attack 
them ; but he was not strong enough . The wife 
of Ching yih remained quiet ; but she ordered 
Chang paou to make an attack on the front of our 
line with ten vessels, and Leang po paou to come 
from behind. Our commander fought in the van 



and in the rear, and made a dreadful slaughter ; 1809. 
but there came suddenly two other pirates, Heang- 
shang iirl, and Suh puh king, who surrounded 
and attacked our commander on all sides. Our 
squadron was scattered, thrown into disorder, 
and consequently cut to pieces ; there was a (Hy.) 
noise which rent the sky ; every man fought in 
his own defence, and scarcely a hundred re- 
mained together. The squadron of Ching yih 
overpowered us by numbers ; our commander 
was not able to protect his lines, they were 
broken, and we lost fourteen vessels. 

Our men of war, escorting some merchant 
vessels, in the fourth moon of the same year, 
happened to meet the pirate nicknamed The 
Jewel of the whole crew, cruizing at sea near a 
place called Tang pae keb, outside of Tseaou 
mun. The traders became exceedingly fright- 
ened, but our commander said : " This not 
being the red flag, we are a match for them, 
therefore we will attack and conquer them." 
Then ensued a battle ; they attacked each 
other with guns and stones, and many people 
were killed and wounded. The fighting ceased 


*2G 11 1 sroUY OF THE 

1809. towards the evening, and began again next 
(12 r.) morning. The pirates and the men of war 
were very close to each other, and they boasted 
mutually about their strength and valour. It 
was a very hard fight ; the sound of cannon 
and the cries of the combatants were heard 
some le* distant. The traders remained at some 
distance ; they saw the pirates mixing gun- 
powder in their beverage, 一 they looked instantly 
red about the face and the eyes, and then 
fought desperately. 卞 This fighting continued 
three days and nights incessantly ; at last be- 
coming tired on both sides, they separated. 

On the eighth day of the fifth moon the pirates 
left their lurking place, attacked Kan chuh han, 
and burned and plundered the houses. On the 
tenth they burned and plundered Kew keang, 
(12v.) Sha kow, and the whole sea-coast ; they then 
turned about to Kee chow, went on shore, and 
carried away fifty-three women by force. They 

• Le : this itinerary measure, as Ave have remarked, is different 
in different parts of the empire ; it is generally considered that 250 
le make a degree of latitude. 

个 This they did probably to look more ferocious. Plutarch ob- 
serves of Sylla, that " the ferocity of his aspect was heightened 
by his complexion, whicli was a strong red, interspersed with spots 
of white.'" 



went to sea again the following day, burned and 〗809. 
plundered on their way about one hundred houses 
in Sin hwy and Shang sha, and took about a 
hundred persons of both sexes prisoners. 

On the sixth moon, the admiral Ting kwei 
heu went to sea. Wishing to sail eastward, but 
falling in with heavy rains for some days, he 
stopped near Kwei kea mun,* and engaged in 
settling concerning his ballast. On the eighth 
day of this moon, Chang paou, availing himself 
of the bad weather, explored the station in a 
small boat and passed the place. Ting kwei was 
right in thinking that the pirates would not un- 
dertake any thing during these heavy rains ; but 
he was careless regarding what might happen 
after it. Indeed, as the weather cleared up on 
the morning of the ninth, Chang paou appeared 
suddenly before the admiral, and formed a line (13 r.) 
of two hundred vessels. Ting kwei having no 
sails ready, and all the ships being at anchor, 
could by no means escape the pirates. The 

• Mun means an entrance or month ; few of these places are to 
be found, even in the particular maps of the proviiifc K、、'img. tuiitr 
in the Taij tsiny hivy teen. 



1809. officers, being afraid of the large number of the 
enemy, stood pale with apprehension near the 
flagstaff, unwilling to fight. The admiral spoke 
to them in a very firm manner, and said : " By 
your fathers and mothers, by your wives and 
children, do your duty ; fight and destroy these 
robbers. Every man must die : but should we 
be so happy as to escape, our rewards from go- 
vernment will be immense. Should we fall in the 
defence of our country, think that the whole force 
of the empire will be roused, and they will try by 
all means to destroy these banditti." They now 
all united together in a furious attack, and sus- 

(13 V.) tained it for a long time : Ting kwei fired his 
great guns,* and wounding the ringleader, nick- 
named The Jewel of the whole crew, he fell down 

The pirates were now at a loss how to pro- 
ceed; but they received succour, while the force 

* Paou, the first character of 8233, is in our own history always 
used in the signification of cannon. The word meant in former 
times an engine for throwing stones, and so it is used in the history 
of the Han dynasty. This gave rise to the opinion that the Chi- 
nese had guns and gunpowder long before its discovery in Europe. 
How could these extraordinary engines have escaped the discri- 
minating genius of Marco Polo, had they existed in China ? 



of our commander diminished every moment. 1809. 
About noon Paou drew nearer to the vessel of 
Ting kwei, attacked, her with small arms, and 
sustained a great loss. But Leang po paou 
suddenly boarded the vessel, and the crew was 
thrown into disorder. Ting kwei seeing that 
he was unable to withstand, committed suicide ; 
while an immense number of his men perished 
in the sea, and twenty-five vessels were lost. 

Our former deputy-governor Pih ling was 
about this time removed from his situation in 
the three Keang to become governor-general of 
the two Kwang.* People said, now that Pih (I4r.) 
comes we shall not be overpowered by the 
pirates. Old men crowded about the gates of 
the public offices to make enquiries ; the go- 
vernment officers appeared frightened and held 
consultations day and night, and the soldiers 
were ordered by a public placard to hold them- 
selves ready to march. " Since the death of 
Wang peaou," it was said, " all commanders 

* The three provinces which have Kcang (5500) in their name, 
the same as the two Kwang, Kwang to the east (tung) and Kwang 
to the west (se), are usually united under one governor and one 
deputy governor. 



1809- were unfortunate. Last year Kw6 lung I'm was 
killed in the battle at Ma chow ; Tsueti mow sun 
was unlucky at Gaou koiu, Url lin ran away like 
a coward at Lang pae, and now Ting kwei has 
again been routed at Kwei kea. If the valiant 
men let their spirits droop, and the soldiers them- 
selves become frightened at these repeated de- 
feats, the pirates will certainly overpower us at 
last; we can really not look for any assistance 
to destroy them. We must try to cut off all 
provisions, and starve them." In consequence 
of this, all vessels were ordered to remain, or 
to return into harbour, that the pirates might not 
have any opportunity to plunder, and thus be 
destroyed by famine. The government officers 
being very vigilant about this regulation, the 
pirates were not able to get provisions for some 
months ; they became at last tired of it, and 
resolved to go into the river itself.* 

The pirates came now into the river by three 
different passages. 卞 The wife of Ching yih 
plundered about Sin hwy, Chang paou about 

* Previously they robbed only in the open sea, outside the 
Canton river. 

十 The river discharges itself by many channels into the sea. 



Tung- kwan,* and O po tae about Fan yu 卞 and 1809- 
Shun till, and all other smaller places con- (15 r.) 
nected with Shun till ; they were together ex- 
plored by the pirates, who guarded the passage 
from Fan to Shun. 

On the first day of the seventh moon, O po tae 
came with about a hundred vessels and burnt 
the custom-house of Tsze ne. On the second day 
he divided his squadron into four divisions, ex- 
tending to Peih keang, Wei yung, Lin yo, Shih 
peih, and other villages. The Chang Imig di- 
vision J surrounded the whole country from Ta 
wang yin to Shwy sse ying. The Ta chow, or 
large-vessel division, blockaded Ke kiing shih, 
which is below the custom-house of Tsze ne. 

♦ Tung kwan keen is easterly from Canton 150 le, its area - 
amounts to 180 Ie, and pays 44,G07 leang land-rent, or taxes. 
There are many small islands belonging- to the district of Tung 

十 Fan yu heen, near Canton. The place where European ships 
anchor belongs to this Heen ; its area amounts to 140 le, and pays 
48,35G leang. I looked in vain for some notices regarding the 
many small villages which are to be found in the sequel of the 
page. Some of them are merely mentioned in the Itinerary of 
the province Canton. The reader may compare the account of 
Richard Glasspoole in the Appendix. 

X These are names of different sorts of Chinese vessels or 



1809. The pirates sent to the village Tsze ne, demand- 
ing ten thousand pieces of money * as tribute ; 
and of San shen, a small village near Tsze ne 
on the right side, they demanded two thou- 

(15v.) sand. The villagers differed in opinion ; one 
portion would have granted the tribute, another 
would not. That part who wished to pay the 
tribute said : " The pirates are very strong ; it 
is better to submit ourselves now, and to give 
the tribute that we may get rid of them for 
awhile ; we may then with leisure think on 
means of averting any misfortunes which may 
befall us. Our villages are near the coast, we 
shall be surrounded and compelled to do what 
they like, for no passage is open by which 
we can retire. How can we, under such 
circumstances, be confident and rely on our own 
strength V, 

The other part, who would not grant the tri- 
bute, said : " The pirates will never be satis- 

* In the original Kin (6369). Kin cannot be the common cash 
(Tung pao) for then the sum would be too trifling 一 8 to 
900 are to be got in Canton for a Spanish dollar. If Kin were 
used for dollar, or tael, which is very probable, the sum is 
enormous. Richard Glasspoole states that the pirates demanded 
indeed ten thousand dollars !— See the Appendix. 



fied ; if we give them the tribute now, we shall 1809. 
not be able to pay it on another day. If they 
should make extortions a second time, where 
should we get money to comply with their 
demands ? Why should we not rather spend 
the two thousand pieces of money to encourage 
government officers and the people ? If we q^q y.) 
fight and happen to be victorious, our place 
will be highly esteemed ; but if, what heaven 
may prevent, we should be unlucky, we shall 
be everywhere highly spoken of." The day 
drew to its end, and they could not agree in 
what they should determine on, when one villager 
arose and said : " The banditti will repeatedly 
visit us, and then it will be impossible to pay 
the tribute ; we must Jight." 

As soon as it was resolved to resist the de- 
mands of the pirates, weapons were prepared, 
and all able men, from sixteen years and up- 
wards to sixty, were summoned to appear with 
their arms near the palisades. They kept quiet 
the whole of the second day, and proceeded not 
to fighting ; but the people were much disturbed, 
and did not sleep the whole night. On the fol- 




1809. lowing day they armed and posted themselves 
(16v.) on the sea-coast. The pirates, seeing that the 
villagers would not pay the tribute, became en- 
raged, and made a severe attack during the 
night ; but they could not pass the ditch before 
the village. On the morning of the fourth, O po 
tae headed his men, forced the ditch, took the 
provisions, and killed the cattle. The pirates 
in great numbers went on shore ; but the vil- 
lagers made such a vigorous resistance that they 
began to withdraw. O po tae therefore sur- 
rounded the village on both sides, and the pirates 
took possession of the mountain in the rear ; 
they then threw the frightened villagers into dis- 
order, pursued them, and killed about eighty. 
After this the pirates proceeded with their van 
to the sea-shore, without encountering any re- 
sistance from the front. The villagers were 
from the beginning very much alarmed for their 
(17 r.) wives and daughters ; they collected them in 
the temple and shut it up. But the pirates 
being victorious, opened the temple, and carried 
the women by force all away on board ship. 
One pirate set off with two very fine women ; 



a villager, on seeing this, pursued after and I809. 
killed him in a hidden place. He then took the 
women and carried them safe through the water, 
― this was a servant. A great number of the 
pirates were killed and wounded, and the vil- 
lagers lost about two thousand persons. What 
a cruel misfortune ! it is hard indeed only to 
relate it. 

On the third day of the moon the people of 
Ta ma chow, hearing that the pirates were 
coming near, ran away. The pirates plundered 
all that was left behind, clothes, cattle, and pro- 
visions. On the sixth day they came so far as (I7v.) 
Ping chow and San shan. On the eighth they 
retired to Shaou wan, made an attack, upon it 
on the ninth, but could not take it. On the 
tenth they ascended the river with the tide, 
went on shore, and burned Wei shih tun. On 
the eleventh day they came to our village, but 
retired again at night on command. On the 
twelfth they attacked Hwang yung, and left it 
again on the thirteenth. They retired on the 
fourteenth, and stopped at Nan pae. On the 
fifteenth they sailed out of the Bocca Ti- 



1809 gris,* and on the twenty-sixth attacked the 
ships which bring the tribute from Siam ,卞 but 
were not strong enough to capture them. On 
the twenty-ninth they attacked the places Tung 

(18 r.) hwan and Too shin, and killed nearly a thousand 

The pirates tried many stratagems and 
frauds to get into the villages. One came as 
a country gentleman to take charge of the go 

• Hoo mun. The following^ notice on the Chinese tiger is 
taken from the geography of Mookden, and translated by Father 
Amiot. Eloge de la ville de Moukden par Kien long, p. 249. 
" Au-dela de nos frontiferes (Mookden), il y aune esp^ce de tigre, 
dont la peau est un fort beau blanc, sur lequel il y a, par inten-alles, 
des taches noires. Ces espfeces de tigres sont plus mechants et 
plus feroces que les autres." Father Amoit adds, that these tigers 
are called Hoo by the Chinese, and Task a by the JManchow. 

十 The Chinese geographers and historians are very well ac- 
quaited Avith Siam ; there is an interesting description of this em- 
pire in the Hae kwo been keen, p. 21, and in the 57th book, p. 13, of 
the memoirs concerning the south of the Mei ling mountains. That 
Siam acknowledges the supremacy of China, was known to the 
most early European travellers. Cluver says (in his Tntroductio 
in omnem Geographiam Wolfenbuttelae, 1694, 4 to., p. 473), that 
" Rex Siamensis irruptione crebriori Tartarica pressus, Chano 
denique Chinensi sese beneficiarium aut vasallum submisit." 
Mendez Pinto, who was in that country in the year 1540, states 
that the king of Siam acknowledged the supremacy of China ; 
Bernhardi Varcni Descriptio regni Japonise et Siam ; Cantabrigiae 
1673-8, p. 128. 



vernment guns ; another came in a government 1809. 
vessel as if to assist the village ; after which 
they on a sudden attacked and plundered all, 
when people were not aware of them. One 
pirate went round as a pedlar, to see and hear 
all, and to explore every place. The country 
people became therefore at last enraged, and 
were in future always on their guard. If they 
found any foreigner, they took him for a pirate 
and killed him. So came once a government 
officer on shore to buy rice ; but the inhabitants 
thought he was a pirate and killed him. There 
was every where a degree of confusion, which 
it is impossible to explain. 

On the sixteenth day of the seventh moon, 
the pirates attacked a village near Tung kwan. (18v.) 
The villagers knowing what would happen, 
made fences and palisades, and obstructed the 
passage with large guns. Armed with lances 
and targets they hid themselves in a secret place, 
and selected ten men only to oppose the pirates. 
The pirates seeing that there were so few people, 
went on shore to pursue them. As soon as 
they came near the ambuscade the guns were 



1809. fired ; the pirates became alarmed and dared 
not advance farther. Not being hurt by the fire, 
they again advanced ; but three pirates presum- 
ing that there was an ambush, thought of re- 
treating, and being very hard pressed by the 
enemy, they gave a sign to their comrades to 
come on shore. The ten villagers then retired 
near the ambush, and when the pirates pursued 
them, about a hundred were killed by their guns, 
and the whole force of the banditti was brought 
into disorder. The villagers pursued them kill- 

(19 r.) ing many ; those also who had been taken alive 
were afterwards beheaded. They captured one 
small and two large vessels.* 

On the eighteenth day of the eighth moon 
the wife of Ching yih came with about five 
hundred vessels from Tung kwan and Sin hwy, 
and caused great commotion in the town Shun 

• It is impossible to translate the names of vessels of different 
descriptions. The large are the Chang lung, or great dragon vessels 
which by the Chinese law are forbidden to be used by any private 
person ; these are the Mandarin, or government vessels. The 
pirates nevertheless had such vessels, as likewise the daring smug- 
glers, who bring the opium from Lintin, or Linting, to Canton. 
The amount of the opium trade in the port of Canton was, in the 
year 1829-30, equal to 12,057,157 Sp. dollars. 



tih, Heang shan, and the neighbouring places. 1809. 
The squadron stopped at Tan chow, and on the 
twentieth Chang pao was ordered to attack 
Shaou ting with three hundred vessels. He 
carried away about four hundred people, both 
male and female ; he came also to the palisades 
of our village, but could not penetrate inside. 
The twenty-first he came to Lin tow, and the 
twenty-second to Kan shin ; he made an at- 
tack, but could not overpower the place ; he 
then returned to Pwan peen jow, and lay before 
its fence. The inhabitants of Chow po chin, (19, 
knowing that the pirates would make an attack, 
assembled behind the wall to oppose them. 
The pirates fired their guns and wounded some, 
when the villagers ran away. The pirates 
then went on shore, but the villagers crowded 
together and fired on them ; the pirates cast 
themselves on the ground, and the shots passed 
over their heads without doing any harm. Be- 
fore the gunners could again load, the pirates 
sprang up and put them to death. Out of the 
three thousand men who were in the battle, 
five hundred were carried away by the pirates. 



1809. One of the most daring pirates, bearing* the 
flag, was killed by the musket of a villager; a 
second pirate then took the flag, and he also 
was killed. The pirates now pressed against 
the wall and advanced. There was also a fo- 

(20 r.) reign pirate* engaged in the battle with a 
fowling-piece. The pirates assembled in great 
numbers to cut the wall with their halberts, but 
they were disappointed on seeing they could 
not attain their object in such a manner. The 
pirates lost their hold, fell down, and were killed. 
The engagement now became general, and great 
numbers were killed and wounded on both 
sides. The villagers at last were driven from 
their fortifications, and the pirates pursued them 
to Mih ke, or the rocks about JMi.h, where they 
were hindered from going farther by foggy- 
weather ; they retired and burned about twenty 
houses, with all they contained. On the fol- 
lowing day the pirates appeared again on the 

• One of the English sailors, who had been taken prisoner. 
" The pirates frequently obliged my men to go on shore and fight 
with the muskets, which did great execution ; the Chinese princi- 
pally using bows and arrows. They have match-locks, but use 
them very unskilfully." 一 See Appendix. 



shore, but the inhabitants made a vigorous resis- 1809] 
tance, and being driven back, they retired to 
the citadel Chih hwa, where a thousand of them 
fought so hard that the pirates withdrew. It (20 v.) 
was reported that ten of them were killed, and 
that the villagers lost eight men. On the twenty- 
third, the wife of Ching yi'h ordered O po tae to 
go up the river with about eighty vessels : he 
stopped at Show ke and Kung shih. On the 
twenty-fourth Chang paou and Po tae divided 
this district between themselves, and robbed 
and burned all. Pao had to plunder the north 
part to Fo shin ; he carried away about ten 
thousand stones of rice,* and burned down about 
thirty houses ; on the twenty-fifth he went to Se 
shin. O po tae came and burnt San heung keih ; 、 
he then plundered Hwang yung, and came to 
Keen ke, but did not make an attack against it. 
He afterwards returned and laid waste Clia 

• A shih, or stone, contains four keun : a keun tliir(y kin or 
catty, the well known Chinese weight : a catty is cijtuil to one 
pound and a third English. 




1809. On the twenty-sixth Chang paou went up the 
(21 r.) river to Nan hae* and Lan shih. In the harbour 
of the place were six rice vessels ; and as soon 
as Paou was in Lan shih he made preparations 
to capture these vessels. The military officer, 
seeing that the pirates were numerous, remain- 
ed however on his station, for the instant he 
would have moved, Paou would have attacked 
and captured him. Paou proceeded then against 
the village itself ; but the officer Ho shaou yuen 
headed the inhabitants, and made some resis- 
tance. The pirates, nevertheless, mounted the 
banks ; and the villagers seeing their strength, 
did not stay to fight ― they became frightened 
and ran away : all the others ran away without 
making any resistance : Ho shaou yuen alone 
opposed the banditti with a handful of people ; 
but he at last fell fighting, and the pirates burnt 
(21 V.) four hundred shops and houses, and killed 

* Nan hae hem. Its area amounts to 278 le, and it pays 63,731 
leang. The European factories in Canton lie in this district, 
and the monastery opposite to the factories is usually from the 
name of the district called the Hae nan sze, the temple of Hae 
nan. The district of every place is called by the name of the 
the place, and we must therefore speak of the town and district 
Nan hae. 



about ten persons. After the pirates had re- 1809. 
tired, the inhabitants held in high esteem the 
excellent behaviour of Ho shaou yiien ; they 
erected him a temple, and the deputy-governor 
Han fung' performed sacrifices to his memory. 

Shaou yuen was commanding officer in the 
citadel of Lan shih ; he was of an active spirit, 
and erected strong fences. Before the pirates 
arrived, this was his daily discourse when he 
spoke to the people : "I know that I shall be 
glorified this year by my death." Half the year 
being already passed, it could not be seen how 
this prophecy was to be fulfilled. When the 
pirates came, he encouraged the citizens to op- 
pose them vigorously ; he himself girded on 
his sword and brandished his spear, and was 
the most forward in the battle. He killed many 
persons ; but his strength failed him at last, 
and he was himself killed by the pirates. The 
villagers were greatly moved by his excellent 
behaviour ; they erected him a temple, and said, 
prayers before his effigy. It was then known 
what he meant, that " he would be glorified in 
the course of the year." Now that twenty 



iSOO. years arc passed, they even honour him by ex- 
hibiting fire-works. I thought it proper to sub- 
join this remark to my history.* ' 

On the twenty-seventh, Lin sun mustered 
about forty vessels, and went out to fight with 
the pirates in order to protect the water pas- 
sage. He remained at Kin kang (which is near 

* This simple note of the Chinese author better illustrates the 
religion of China than many learned dissertations. All the dei- 
ties, those of Greece and Rome, of China and India, are derived 
from two sources ; both the powers of nature and highly gifted 
human being's were deified. These powers of nature, and the 
virtues and vices of men being in every community nearly similar^ 
the same gods and g'oddesses are found every where ; only their 
external form and shape is different. Every province, every 
town, and every village of China has its particular tutulary saint^ 
or god, and on the day of his festival his effigy is carried in pub- 
lic. There is no essential difference in this respect behveen 
China and those countries where Roman Catholicism is yet in 
its highest vigour. The effigies of the Chinese gods and god- 
desses are all of the human shape ; they have no monsters like 
India and Egypt, under which it was once the fashion to seek 
for extraordinary wisdom and astonishing science. Lucian has- 
already taken the liberty of laughing; at these deities, and at the 
writers, the prophets, and sophists, who try to find some sense 
in all this vulgar display of nonsense, by which the people are de- 
luded. Lucian de Sacreficiis s. f. where he laughs at the Jupiter 
with a ram's head, at the good fellow jNIercurius with the coun- 
tenance of a dug", etc. K^to'^r^oa'co'rov ^£v rdv A/a, Kvvo'jr^offwTrov 2s tow 
/SfXT/rov' Y.^fjLYi), Kc&i rov Cava oXov r^ayov, etc. Scc tho pleasant story of 
Jupiter with the raiu's head in Herodotus, u. 42r 



Sliaou wan hae), hid himself westerly of that 1809. 
place the whole day, and removed then to Tsze (22 r.) 
ne. Chang paou ordered his vessels to remove to 
Shaou ting, and his men to go on shore in the 
night-time. Sun, seeing with sorrow that the 
pirates were so numerous, and that he could 
not make any effectual resistance, ran away 
eastwards and hid himself at Peih keang. At 
daylight the following morning the pirates 
sailed to Tsze ne to attack our commander, but 
not finding him, they stopped at Shaou ting ; 
for this being the time when the autumnal winds 
begin to blow, they were afraid of them, and made 
preparations to retire. But we shall soon find 
the different flags returning to the high sea to 
fight both with extraordinary courage and great 
ferocity.* (o^v.) 

On the twenty-ninth they returned to plunder 
Kan shin ; they went into the river with small 
vessels, and the inhabitants opposing them, 
wounded two pirates, which all the pirates re- 
sented. They next came with large vessels, sur- 

* The strong winds (Tay fung) in the Chinese sea begin about 
the middle of September, or just before the equinox. 



1809. rounded the village, and made preparations to 
(22v.) mount the narrow passes. The inhabitants re- 
mained within the intrenchments, and dared 
not come forward. The pirates then divided 
their force according to the various passes, and 
made an attack. The inhabitants prepared 
themselves to make a strong resistance near the 
entrance from the sea on the east side of the 
fence ; but the pirates stormed the fence, planted 
their flag on the shore, and then the whole 
squadron followed. The inhabitants fought 
bravely, and made a dreadful slaughter when 
the pirates crossed the entrance at Lin tow. 
The boxing-master, Wei tang chow, made a vi- 
gorous resistance, and killed about ten pirates. 
The pirates then began to withdraw, but Chang 
paou himself headed the battle, which lasted 
very long. The inhabitants were not strong 
enough. Wei tang was surrounded by the pirates ; 
(23 r.) nevertheless that his wife fought valiantly by 
his side. On seeing that they were surrounded 
and exhausted, the father of the lady* rushed 

* It is not stated in the Chinese text, whose father rushed for- 
ward, whether it was the father of the lady, or of Wei tang chow. 



forward and killed some pirates. The pirates 1809. 
then retired in opposite directions, in order to 
surround their opponents in such a manner that 
they might not escape, and could be killed 
without being able to make any resistance ; and 
thus it happened, the wife of Wei tang being 
slain with the others. 

The pirates now pursued the inhabitants of 
the place, who cut the bridge and retired to the 
neighbouring hills. The pirates swam through 
the water and attacked the inhabitants, who 
were unable to escape. The whole force of the 
pirates being now on shore, the inhabitants suf- 
fered a severe loss, ― it is supposed about a 
hundred of them were killed ; the loss of the 
pirates also was considerable. (23 v.) 

The pirates went in four divisions to plunder ; 
they took here an immense quantity of clothes 
and other goods, and carried away one thou- 
sand one hundred and forty captives of both 
sexes. They set on fire about ten houses ; the 
flames could not be extinguished for some 
days ; in the whole village you could not hear 



1809. the cry of a dog or a hen. The other inha- 
bitants retired far from the village, or hid 
themselves in the fields. In the paddy fields 
about a hundred women were hidden, but the 
pirates on hearing a child crying, went to the 
' place and carried them away. Mei ying, the 
wife of Ke choo yang, was very beautiful, and a 

(24 r.) pirate being about to seize her by the head, she 
abused him exceedingly. The pirate bound her 
to the yard-arm ; but on abusing him yet more, 
the pirate dragged her down and broke two of 
her teeth, which filled her mouth and jaws with 
blood. The pirate sprang up again to bind her. 
Ying allowed him to approach, but as soon as he 
came near her, she laid hold of his garments with 
her bleeding mouth, and threw both him and 
herself into the river, where they were drowned. 
The remaining captives of both sexes were after 
some months liberated, on having paid a ransom 
of fifteen thousand leang or ounces of silver. 

Travelling once to Pwan peen jow I was 
affected by the virtuous behaviour of Mei ying, 
and all generous men will, as I suppose, be 



moved by the same feelings. I therefore com- 】809. 
posed a song, mourning her fate : 

Chen ke kin seaou hee, 
Chiiy sze cluing soo meen. 
Tang" she shwuy fan leih. 
Yew neu tiih nang tsuy ; 
Tseen heue ying kwang nee,* 
Yuen keu yuen shwuy wei. 
Shwuy hwan po shang hea, 
Ying lee shang pei hwuy. 

Cease fighting" now for awhile ! 

Let us call back the flowing waves ! 

Who opposed the enemy in time ? 

A single wife could overpower him. (24 v.) 

Streaming with blood, she grasped the mad offspring 
of guilt. 

She held fast the man and threw him into the mean- 
dering stream. 

The spirit of the water, wandering* up and down on 
the waves. 

Was astonished at the virtue of Ying. 
My song is at an end ! 

Waves meet each other continually. 

• I must again remark that there is a false character in our 
text : it should be Nec, 7974 in the Tonical Dictionary of 
Dr. M. 




1809. I SCO the water green as mountain Peih, 
But the brilliant fire returns no more 
How long" did we mourn and cry !十 

* I am compelled to give a free translation of this verse, and 
confess myself not quite certain of the signification of the 
poetical figures used by our author, Fung signifies a hollow 
pyramid filled with combustibles ; yen signifies the smoke caused 
by combustion; ^5ea;ij/ signifies the spar or yard in a boat or ship, 
to which the sail is attached, and ying is shadow. It seems that 
the author alludes to the spar or yard-arm, at which Mei ying was 
fastened by the pirate ; but what he means by shadow I do not 
really know, perhaps ying is in the place of Mei ying. 

十 The Chinese characters are printed like the other portion of 
the work. I have divided them according" to the verses. Only the 
first eight lines have a regular metre of five feet, or words, and as 
the author himself says, his song is then at an end ; but the lan- 
guage still remains poetical, and for that reason it was thought 
proper to divide also the remaining lines like verses. Every word 
must be considered as consisting of one syllable or sound, even if 
we write it with three or four vowels. Poetry is perhaps more 
esteemed in China, than in any other country in the world. The 
late governor-general of Kvvang tung* and Kwang se, his Excel- 
lency Yuen, published the poems of his daughter, who died 
when only nineteen years of ag-e. Most of the emperors of 
China wrote verses, and I have, if I remember rightly, an im- 
perial collection printed at the command of、 Kea king of many 
volumes, containing* the poetry of the crowned heads of China. 
The reader may easily imagine that the Chinese have many works 
on poetry ; I am also in possession of a Chinese Gradus ad Par- 
n as sum in ten large volumes, in which are to be found, divided under 
different heads, all the fine expression and poetical images of the 
classical poets. Mr. Davis has given some excellent specimens 
of Chinese poetry in his elegant dissertation on that subject. 




On the thirteenth day of the ninth moon our 1809. 
. J . (1 r.) 

Admiral Tsuen mow sun mustered about eighty 

vessels to go to Shaou wan, and obstruct the 
passage. The pirates heard of these prepara- 
tions, and on the night of the fourteenth every 
vessel of the different flags was ordered to go 
to Shaou wan. Their order was, that being 
within ten le from the place, they should stop 
and prepare themselves to begin the battle 
when it was dark. From the first night watch 
the cannon began to fire, and only ceased with (1 v.) 
daylight. At the end of the day the cannon 
were again roaring without any intermission, and 
the country people mounted on the green Lo 
shang, to look at the progress of the fight. 
They saw the wrecks of vessels floating- on the 
sea, the waves were rolling, the bullets flying, 



1809. and the cries of dying people mounted to 
the skies. The vallies re-echoed the noise ; 
beasts and birds* started alarmed, and found 
no place where they might repose themselves. 
The vessels were thrown into disorder, and our 
army was pressed down by the overpowering 
force of the enemy. Our commander lost four 
vessels, but the palisade before the village 
could not be taken, by which means it was 
protected against pillage. Our admiral said, 
" Since I cannot conquer these wicked pirates, 
I will blow myself up." In this manner the 

(2 r.) admiral and many other officers met their death. 
On the twenty-fifth the pirates went to Heang 
shan and to great Hwang po ;卞 they took pos- 

* Verbally " monkeys and birds," a sort of birds which accord- 
ing to Dr. Morrison are something; similar to our crows. 

十 In the memoirs concerning the south of the Meiling mountains, 
three books (from 9 一 11 incl.) are filled up 、vith a description of 
the seas, rivers, and lakes, of the province of Canton. Book 
ninth begins with a general description of the Chinese seas, and 
of the different entrances from the sea-side ; then follows a par- 
ticular description of the sea near Canton and Hainan, and of 
the different Tides at various places. The mariner would cer- 
tainly be gratified by a translation of this part of the work. The 
translator has often remarked the extraordinary phenomenon of 
the fiery appearance of the sea, during his residence in China, 



session of the inside and the outside passage of 1809. 
Hwang po, so that the boat-people ,来 who stay 

In the before-mentioned work, b. ix. p. 5 v, we read the follow- 
ing notice concerning' this phenomenon : 

" The fire in the sea : It happens sometimes that sea waves have 
such a luminous appearance, as if the whole sea were full of fire. 
If you cast any thing" into the sea, it becomes luminous like a 
star ; but you do not see this during moonlight. Wood having in 
itself no fire, receives a fiery appearance, after having been passed 
through the water." 

In b. X, p. 10 r. Whampo is said to be seventy le from the sea 
custom-house of Canton. In this extract foreigners are in ge- 
neral very unfavourably spoken of. Amongst other things we 
are told, " that foreigners or barbarians drink so much strong 
liquor that they are not able to stand on their feet; they fall down 
intoxicated, and before having had a sound sleep, they cannot rise 
again," It is also remarked in the same article that many people 
assemble together at Whampo, to attend the trade with the fo- 
reigners ; the reason probably why our author calls it " the 
Great." The reader will remember what has been said on Heang 
shan in a former note ; I will only here add the remark of Mar- 
tini, " that in his time the principal and most wealthy merchants 
lived in that place." (Thevenot Relations de divers voyages, iii. 

* It is well known that a great part of the population of China 
live on the water, and they are generally called Tan (9832) 
people ; ― a word which in the Canton dialect is pronounced 
Tanka, They are quite a separate race, and harshly dealt with 
by the Chinese government. There exist particular works con- 
cerning the history, the customs and laws of these boat-people. 
They more than once opposed the despotic regulation of their 
masters, and government was always afraid they might join the 
pirates. The history of the southern barbarians in the often 



1809. outside on the coast, retired and came up to 
the town with their boats. The military officer 
Ting gaou ho being made acquainted with the 
arrival of the pirates, requested ten fishing- 
boats from the town Heang shan to assist the 
citizens and to help them in opposing the 
enemy. He posted himself before the town to 
protect it. Ting gaou behaved valiantly on the 
river ; he headed his small fleet of fishing boats 
and opposed the pirates. There was incessant 
fighting day and night ; but at last the nume- 
rous vessels of the pirates surrounded him on 
all sides, and Ting gaou ho received a severe 
wound ill the back. He then addressed his 
comrades in the following words : " Being on 

quoted Memoirs, &c. begins with a description of the Tan jin, or 
Tanka people, and it is there said that they are divided into three 
different classes. The description of their customs and manners 
is very interesting, and I hope soon to lay it before the English 
reader. It has been supposed that the name Tanka people is de- 
rived from the form of their boats, which is similar to an egg ; 
but Shtvu wan, as quoted in Kang he, explains the word only by 
Nan fmg e yay, Barbarians of the southern region. There exist 
different forms of this character, but I think we should not 
presume to make an etymology of a Chinese character witliout 
being; authorized by the Shvvo wan, the oldest and most genuine 
source of Chinese lexicography. 



the military station before this town, it was my 1802. 
intention to destroy the pirates, and for this 
reason I united with all the principal men to 
oppose them, without considering my own 
safety ; ~ joyful I went to oppose the enemy. 
But not being able to destroy this immense num- 
ber of banditti, I am now surrounded with all 
my principal men ; and being deficient in 
power, I will die. Death could not move me, 
but I fear the cruel behaviour of the banditti ; 
I fear that if the battle come to its highest 
summit, our fathers and mothers, our wives and 
sons, will be taken captives. United with the 
principal men of the town, we cannot destroy 
the pirates, neither protect the country, our 
families, nor our own firesides, ― but the cir- 
cumstances being desperate, we must do our 

They now again rushed against the pirates 
and killed many of them ; but their strength 

♦ In the Chinese text is King king (the character is composed 
out of radical fire and ear), on which is to be found an interesting 
critical observation in Kanghe, s. v. b. viii. p. Ii9r. In no other 
oriental language has there been so much done by the natives for 
the foreign student as by the Chinese. 



1809. being exhausted, the ten fishing boats were 
taken, and great Hwang po given up to be plun- 
dered. The citizens retired to their intrench- 
ments, and made such vigorous resistance that 
the pirates could not make them captives. 
Chang paou therefore ordered O po tae and Leang 
po paou to make an attack on both sides, on the 
front and the rear at once ; so the citizens sus- 
tained a great defeat, and about a hundred of 
them were killed. A placard was then posted 
up in the town, admonishing the citizens that 
they being unable to resist the enemy, must, 
under these cruel circumstances, send mes- 
sengers to make terms with the pirates. This 

(3 V.) being done, the pirates withdrew. 

The wife of Ching yih then ordered the pirates 
to go up the river ; she herself remaining* with 
the larger vessels in the sea to blockade the 
different harbours or entrances from the sea- 
side ; but the government officers made pre- 
parations to oppose her. There were about this 
time three foreign vessels returning to Portugal.* 

* The most common denomination for Portugal is now Se 
yaii^ IvMo, or more correctly Siao se yang kivo. " The small 



Yili's wife attacked them, took one vessel, and LTO. 
killed about ten of the foreigners ; the two 
other vessels escaped. The Major Pang noo of 
Heang shan about this time fitted out a hundred 
vessels to attack the pirates ; he had before 
hired six foreign vessels, and the two Portuguese 
ships, which had before run away, united also 
with him. Yih's wife, seeing that she had not 
vessels enough, and that she might be surround- 
ed, ordered a greater number to her assistance. (4 r.) 
She appointed Chang paou to command them, 
and sail up the river ; but to keep quiet with 
his squadron till he saw the Chang lung, or 
government vessels come on. On the third of 
the tenth moon the government vessels went 
higher up the river, and Chang paou following 
and attacking them, the foreign vessels sus- 
tained a great loss, and all the other vessels 

realm in the western ocean ; Europe is called Ta se ynng. (See 
Preface.) I thought it here more proper to translate E by foreigner, 
than by barbarian. In a Chinese history of Macao, we find various 
particulars reijaiding the Portujruese. The description of the 
Portuguese cleryy and the Roman Catholic reliy;ion is the most in- 
teresting- part of this curious publication. It consists of two parts, 
or volumes. 




1809. then ran away. The foreigners showed them- 
selves very courageous ; they petitioned the 
mayor of Heang shan to place himself at the 
head of the foreign vessels, to go and fight the 
pirates. Pang noo having for some time con- 
sidered their request, inspected on the tenth of 
the same month the six foreign vessels, their 
arms and provisions, and went out into the sea 

(4v') to pursue the pirates. 

About this time Chang paou had collected his 
force at Ta yu shan near Chih leih keo, and the 
foreign vessels went thither to attack him. 
About the same time the admiral, Tsuen. mow 
sun, collected a hundred vessels, and joined the 
foreigners to attack the pirates. On the thir- 
teenth they spread out their lines, and fought 
during two days and two nights, without either 
party proving victorious. On the fifteenth one 
of the officers went forward with some large 
vessels to attack the pirates, but he was very 
much hurt by the fire of the guns ; his vessel 
was lost, and about ten men were killed and 
many others wounded, 一 after this, the whole 
fleet retired. They however again commenced 



fighting on the sixteenth, but being unable to 1809. 
withstand the pirates, one vessel more was 

The Admiral Tsuen mow sun was exceed- (5 r.) 
ingly eager to destroy the pirates, but he was 
confident that he was not strong enough to van- 
quish them, and he spoke thus to his people : 
" The pirates are too powerful, we cannot master 
them by our arms ; the pirates are many, we 
only few ; the pirates have large vessels, we only 
small ones ; the pirates are united under one 
head, but we are divided, ― and we alone are 
unable to engage with this overpowering force. 
We must therefore now make an attack, when 
they cannot avail themselves of their number, 
and contrive something besides physical strength, 
for by this alone it is impossible for us to be vic- 
torious. The pirates are now all assembled in 
Ta yu shan, a place which is surrounded by 
water. Relying on their strength, and thinking (5 v.) 

* It would be interesting to read the Portuguese version of 
these skirmishes. A history of these skirmishes was printed at 
Lisbon, but I could not procure this publication. The reader may 
compare the statements of Richard Glasspoole in the Appendix. 


HISI OllY OK 'I'llK 

1809. that they will be able to vanquish us, they will 
certainly not leave this place of retirement. We 
should therefore from the provincial city (Canton) 
assemble arms and soldiers as many as we can, 
surround the place, and send fire-vessels among 
their fleet. It is probable that in such a manner 
we may be able to measure our strength with 

Ill consequence of this determination all 
commanders and officers of the different vessels 
were ordered to meet on the seventeenth at Chih 
leih keo, to blockade the pirates in Ta yu shan, 
and to cut off all supplies of provisions that 
might be sent to them. To annoy them yet 
more, the officers were ordered to prepare the 
materials for the fire-vessels. These fire-vessels 
were filled with gunpowder, nitre, and other 
combustibles ; after being filled, they were set on. 
(6 r.) fire by a match from the stern, and were instantly 
all in a blaze. The Major of Heang shan. Pang 
noo, asked permission to bring soldiers with him, 
in order that they might go on shore and make 
an attack under the sound of martial music, 
during the time the mariners made their pre- 



paration. On the twentieth it began to blow very 1809- 
fresh from the north, and the commander ordered 
twenty fire- vessels to be sent off, when they took, 
driven by the wind, an easterly direction ; but 
the pirate's entrenchments being protected by a 
mountain, the wind ceased, and they could not 
move farther on in that direction ; they turned 
about and set on fire two men of war. The 
pirates knowing our design were well prepared 
for it ; they had bars with very long pincers, by 
which they took hold of the fire-vessels and kept 
them off, so that they could not come near. 
Our commander, however, would not leave the 
place ; and being- very eager to fight, he ordered (6 v.) 
that an attack should be made, and it is pre- 
sumed that about three hundred pirates were 
killed. Pao now began to be afraid, and asked 
the Spirit of the three Po, or old mothers, to give 
a prognostic. The Puh, or lot for fighting, was 
disastrous ; the Puh, or lot to remain in the 
easterly entrenchment, was to be happy. The'"^ 
Puhy or lot for knowing if he might force the - ' 
blockade or not on leaving his station to-mor- 



1809. row, was also happy,* three times one after 

There arose with the day-light on the twenty- 
second a light southerly breeze ; all the squa- 
drons began to move, and the pirates prepared 
themselves joyfully to leave their station. 
About noon 卞 there was a strong southerly 
wind, and a very rough sea on. As soon as it 
became dark the pirates made sail, with a good 
deal of noise, and broke through the blockade, 

• The Chinese are very much accustomed to consult the PQh, 
or sort. There exists various ways, according to the ideas of the 
Chinese, of asking the divinity whether any undertaking shall 
prove either fortunate or not. The translator has seen different 
modes of casting lots in the temples of the suburbs of Canton. 
The reader may find an interesting description of casting lots in 
the " Histoire du grand Royaume de la Chine ;" a Rouen 1614-8, 
p. 30. There is much useful information to be found in this 
work ; but it would be curious to learn in what Armenian works 
(" escritures des Armeniens") it is stated, that " St. Thomas came 
through China in his voyage to the East-Indies ,, (1. c. p. 25) I 

t Woo (11753) how ; Woo is the time between eleven and one 
o'clock of the day. The Chinese divide the day into twelve she 
shin, or great hours ; the European twenty- four hours of the day 
are called seaoit she shin, little hours. We learn by a passage of 
Herodotus (Euterpe 109), that the Greeks in his time also divided 
the day into twelve parts ; Herodotus also adds that the Greeks re- 
ceived this division of time from the Babylonians. ― See Visdelou 
in the Supplement to the " Biblioth^que Orientals," by Herbelot, 
under the word Fenek. 



favoured by the southerly wind. About a hun- 1809. 
dred vessels were upset, when the pirates left 
Ta yu shan. But our commander being un- 
aware that the pirates would leave their en- 
trenchments, was not prepared to withstand 
them. The foreign vessels fired their guns and (7 r.) 
surrounded about ten leaky vessels, but could 
not hurt the pirates themselves ; the pirates left 
the leaky vessels behind and ran away. After 
this they assembled outside at Hung chow in 
the ocean. 

Notwithstanding that the pirates had broken 
through the blockade, Tsuen mow sun desisted 
not from pursuing them ; he followed the pirates 
into the open sea in order to attack them. On 
the fifth of the eleventh moon he met the pirates 
near Nan gaou, and prepared his vessels* to 
attack them. The pirates spread out all their 
vessels one by one, so that the line of their fleet 
reached the forces of our commander ; they then 
tried to form a circle and surround our admiral. 
Our commander, in order to prevent this, divided 
his force, 一 he separated from him eighty vessels, (7 v.) 

■* Me teruf is a particular sort of junk. 



1809. which had orders to join him afterwards. Be- 
fore they united again, a great battle took place 
between the two fleets ; the firing lasted from 
three till five in the afternoon ; our crew fought 
exceedingly hard and burnt three pirate- vessels. 
The pirates retreated, and our navy declined 
pursuing them, because it would carry them 
too far out of the way. Our crew being still 
elated at this transaction, the pirates on a 
sudden returned, roused them out of their sleep 
and constrained them to fight a second time. 
The commander had no time to make prepa- 
rations, so that two vessels were burnt by the 
fire of the pirates, and three were captured. 

(8 r.) At the time when Chang paou was blockaded 
in Chih leih keo, and was afraid that he should 
not be able to come out again, he sent to O po 
tae, who was at Wei chow, to rescue him. His 
message was in the following words : 一 " I am 
harassed by the government's officers outside in 
the sea ; lips and teeth must help one another, 
if the lips are cut away the teeth will feel cold. 
How shall I alone be able to fight the government 
forces ? You should therefore come at the head 



of your crew, to attack the government squadron 1809. 
in the rear, I will then come out of my station 
and make an attack in front ; the enemy being 
so taken in the front and rear, will, even sup- 
posing we cannot master him, certainly be 
thrown into disorder." 

Ever since the time Paou was made chieftain 
there had been altercations between him and O 
po tae. Had it not have been out of respect for 
the wife of Ching yth they would perhaps have (8 v.) 
made war against each other. Till now they 
only showed their mutual dislike in their plun- 
dering expeditions on the ocean, and in conse- 
quence of this jealousy Po tae did not fulfil the 
orders of Paou. Paou and his whole crew felt 
very much annoyed at this conduct, and having- 
been able to break through the blockade, he 
resolved to measure his strength with Tae. He 
met him at Neaou chow, and asked him : " Why 
did you not come to my assistance ?" 

O po tae answered : " You must first consider 
your strength and then act ; you must consider 
the business and then go to work. How could 
I and my crew have been sufficient against the 




1 809. forces of the admiral. I learnt your request, 
but men being dependent upon circumstances, 
I could not fulfil it ; I learnt your request, but 
I was dependent on circumstances, and men 

(9 r.) cannot act otherwise.* And now concerning 
this business ― to give or not give assistance ― 
am I bound to come and join your forces ?,, 

Paou became enraged and said : " How is 
this, will you then separate from us ?" 

Tae answered : "I will not separate myself." 
Paou : " Why then do you not obey the 
orders of the wife of Ching yih and my 
own ? What is this else than separation, that 
you do not come to assist me, when I am sur- 
rounded by the enemy ? I have sworn it that I 
will destroy thee, wicked man, that I may do 
away with this soreness on my back." 

There passed many other angry words be- 
tween them, till they at length prepared to fight 
and destroy each other. Chang paou was the 
first to begin the battle ; but having fired his 

t These speeches seem to be rhetorical exercises of the Chinese 
historian ; the antithesis is a figure very much used in Chinese 
rhetoric and poetry, and a great part of their poetry consists 
merely of such antitheses. 



guns, and being deficient in strength, Tae went 1809. 
against him with all his well prepared forces. 
Paou was not able to make any effectual resis- 
tance to his enemy ; he received a severe defeat, 
he lost sixteen vessels, and three hundred men (0 v.) 
were taken prisoners. The prisoners were all 
killed from mutual hatred. 

O po tae remained then at the head of his 
forces without any opposition, since Paou with- 
drew. There was now a meeting held under 
these banditti ; when Chang jih kao arose and 
said : 

" If Paou and we should again measure our 
strength against each other, our force will not be 
found sufficient ; we are only one to ten. It is 
to be feared that they will collect all their forces 
together to exterminate us. They may on a 
sudden come against us and make an attack, 一 
our small body must certainly be in fear of their 
vast number. There is Leaiig po paou, an ex- 
perienced pirate on the sea ; if he should on 
a sudden turn his vessels against us, there is not 
one among us who would be able to resist him. 
He is a very zealous worshipper of the spirit of 



1809. the three Po or Mothers, and protected by 
them ; nay, and protected by them in a super- 

(10 r.) natural manner. But if we perform sacrifices, 
they remain without shadow and echo.* And 
then it may also be added that we are no more 
able to withstand with our short arms their long 
ones, than dogs are able to chase fierce tigers. 
But do we not every where see government 
placards inviting us to submit, why do we not 
then send somebody to make the offer ? The 
government will pardon and not destroy us 
sea-monsters ,卞 and we may then reform our 
previous conduct. Why should we not therefore 
come to a determination to that effect?" 

Fung yung fa said : " How then if govern- 
ment should not trust our word ?" 

Chang jih kao answered : "If government 
should learn that we recently fought Chang 

(lOv.) paou, and destroyed the banditti, —— it would 

• That is ― they are of no effect at all. I, however, thought it 
proper to retain the strong figure of the original. 

卡 The author forgets in his rhetorical flourishes, that it is a 
pirate himself who speaks to pirates. The Chinese characters for 
" sea monster" are to be found in M 2057 ; " King e is used figu- 
ratively for a devouring conqueror of men," says Dr. Morrison. 



be hard indeed if that were not enough to make 1809. 
them trust us ?,, 

Go tsew he said : "If government should not 
act towards us, as it is stated in the placard, 
after having made our submission, we may then 
again use violence. But they will hear, that we 
attacked the others, like fishes their food ; that 
we alone made a beginning in destroying the 
pirates, and then tendered our submission, ― they 
will feel that they can employ us to destroy 
the other pirates. He who is not of the same 
opinion as mine may let his hand hang down." 

O po tae was of the same opinion, and the 
purser was ordered to frame the offer of submis- 
sion to government. The petition concerning 
the offer was couched in the following terms : 

" It is my humble opinion that all robbers of 
an overpowering force, whether they had their 
origin from this or any other cause, have felt the (] 1 r.) 
humanity of government at different times. 
Leang shan who three times plundered the city, 、 
was nevertheless pardoned and at last made a 
minister of state.* Wa kang often challenged 

• The author has here the expression tung -leang (11399) pillar, 
in its proper and figurative sense. He probably chose this ex- 



1809. the arms of his country and was suffered to live, 
and at last made a corner-stone of the empire. 
Joo ming pardoned seven times Maiig hwd ; and 
Kwan kung three times set Tsaou tsaou at 
liberty.* Ma yuen pursued not the exhausted 
robbers ; and Yo fei killed not those who made 
their submission. There are many other in- 
stances of such transactions both in former and 
recent times, by which the country was strength- 

(11 V.) ened and government increased its power. We 
now live in a very populous age ; some of us 
could not agree with their relations, and were 
driven out like noxious weeds. Some after having 
tried all they could, without being able to pro- 
vide for themselves, at last joined bad society. 
Some lost their property by shipwrecks ; some 

pression to make, according' to Chinese sentiments, a fine rhe- 
torical phrase. Leang in the beginning of the phrase corre- 
sponds to the sound and the form of the character to Leang at 
the end : Leang s^ian san kee ching yih, mung gan shay url king 
ts6 tung-leang. There is also something like a quibble in the 
second phrase ; Wa kang, Bricks and mountain ridge is transformed 
into Choo shlh (1223) or a comer-stone, just as Leang-shan, moun- 
tain bridge is into tung-leang, or a pillar. 

• O po tae alludes to well known events in Chinese history. 
On Tsaou tsaou see Dr. Morrison, 10549 in the tonical part of the 



withdrew into this watery empire to escape from 1809. 
punishment. In such a way those, who in the 
beginning were only three or five, were in the 
course of time increased to a thousand or ten 
thousand, and so it went on increasing every 
year. Would it not have been wonderful if 
such a multitude, being in want of their daily 
bread, should not have resorted to plunder and 
robbery to gain their subsistence, since they 
could not in any other manner be saved from 
famine ? It was from necessity that the laws 
of the empire were violated, and the merchants 
robbed of their goods. Being deprived of our 
land and of our native places, having no house 
or home to resort to, and relying only on the (12 r.) 
chances of wind and water, even could we for 
a moment forget our griefs, we might fall in 
with a man-of-war, who with stones, darts 
and guns, would blow out our brains." "Even 
if we dared to sail up a stream and boldly go 
on with anxiety of mind under wind, rain, and 
stormy weather, we must every where prepare 
for fighting. Whether we went to the east, or to 
the west, and after having felt all the hardships 



1809. of the sea, the night dew was our only dwell- 
ing, and the rude wind our meal. But now we 
will avoid these perils, leave our connexions, 
and desert our comrades ; we will make our 
submission. The power of government knows 
no bounds ; it reaches to the islands in the sea, 
and every man is afraid and sighs. Oh we 
must be destroyed by our crimes, none can 
escape who opposeth the laws of government. 

(12v.) May you then feel compassion for those who 
are deserving of death ; may you sustain us by 
your humanity !" 

The chief officers of government met joyfully 
together at Canton, The governor-general of the 
southern district ever loved the people like him- 
self ; and to show his benevolence he often invited 
them by public placards to make submission : ~ - 
he really felt compassion for these lower sort of 
men, who were polluted with crimes i The way 
of compassion and benevolence is the way of 
heaven, which is pleased with virtue ; it is the 
right way to govern by righteousness. Can the 
bird remain quiet with strong wings, or will the 
fish not move in deep water ? Every person 



acts from natural endowments, and our general 1809. 
would have felt compassion even for the mean- 
est creature on earth, if they would have asked 
for pardon. He therefore redeemed these pirates 
from destruction, and pardoned their former 

After this period the country began to assume 
a new appearance. People sold their arms and (13 r.) 
bought oxen to plough their fields ; they burned 
sacrifices, said prayers on the top of the hills, and 
rejoiced themselves by singing behind screens 
during day-time. There were some people who 
endeavoured to act with duplicity, and wished 
to murder the pirates, but the general on seeing 
the petition said to his assistants : "I will pull 
down the vanguard of the enemy to use it for . 
the destruction of the remaining part. I may 
then employ it against the over-spreading power 
of the pirates ; with the pirates I will destroy the 
pirates. Yo fu mow destroyed in this manner 

• I confess that it was not an easy matter to translate these 
rhetorical exercises and poetical phrases, by which the author is 
evidently anxious to draw a veil over the weakness of the empire. 
The Chinese scholar will certainly pardon any mistake wliich 
might occur in this poetical or furious prose 一 to use the expression 
of Blair in his Lectures on Rhetoric 



1809. Yang tay : let us not act with duplicity, that we 
may the better disperse their comrades and 
break their power ; let us therefore accept their 

In the agreement it was stipulated that the 
ships should assemble together in the open sea 
near Kwei shen heen* to make their surrender. 
The Governor-general was to come to that place 

(13v.) to receive O po tae, his vessels, his men, and 
all other things which were pointed out in the 
petition. The Governor-general being exceed- 
ingly pleased, ordered his adjutant Kung gaou 
to examine the list. He found eight thousand 
men, one hundred and twenty-six vessels, five 
hundred large guns, and five thousand six hun- 
dred various military weapons. The towns Yang 
keang and Sin gan were appointed for this 
people to live in. 卞 一 This happened in the 

• Kivei shen is a Heen or town of the third rank, and dependent 
on the district metropolis H、vy chow foo ; it is near to H、vy. Its 
area amounts to thirty-seven le, and pays in taxes 26,058 leang. 
It is stated in the Itinerary of Canton (Kwang tung tsuen too, 
p. 5. V.) that the situation of this great town makes it a place of 
danger; being close to the sea, Kwei shen is exposed to sudden 
attacks from pirates. 

个 Yang keang is a town of the third rank, and dependent on 



twelfth month of the fourteenth year of Kea Jan. 
king ― and so the black squadron was brought 18瓜 
into subjection. O po tae changed his name to 
Heb be€7iy " The lustre of instruction," and the 
general made him a Pa tsung* to reward his 
services in defeating Chang paou. 

On the twelfth moon Chang paou went with (14r.) 
his different squadrons into the river and attack- 
ed Ke chow. It was near the end of the year, 
and the pirates assembled along the mountain 

its district metropolis Chow king foo ; distant from Chow king 
foo in a southerly direction 340 le. Its area amounts to twenty- 
nine le, and it pays 12,499 leang* in taxes. 

Sin gan is a town of the third rank, and dependent upon 
Kwang- chow foo ; distance from Canton in a north-east direction 
200 le. Its area amounts to fifty le, and pays in taxes 11,623 leang:. 
There are three towns in the district of Canton, whose names 
begin with 5m, new ; Sin hwy^ The New Association ; Sin ni7ig^ 
The Netv Repose ; and Sin gan、 The New Rest, Kwang* tung tsuen 
too p. 3 V. 4 V et r. 8 r, Ning (8026) is now always written without 
sin or heart, being the ming or proper name of the reigning em- 
peror. By a mistake it is stated in the Indo-Chinese Gleaner 
(iii. 108.), that Ning was the proper name of Kea king. The 
proper name of the reigning emperor is considered sacred, and 
must be spelled differently during his life-time. 

• A Pa tsung, a kind of inferior military officer, says Dr. 
Morrison, under the word pa, (8103.) 



1810. ridge Laou ya* to make a festival : they made 
a great noise during the night with crackers, 
and their gongs were heard at a great distance. 卞 
At daybreak the flags were spread out, and the 
drums sounded ; they were cheerful the whole 
day ; they eat and drank and made a great 
noise, which was heard many les off. 

On the second day of the same month they 
attacked the village, and on the third day about 
ten men went on shore. The villagers made 
their escape, so that the pirates could not take 
them. Having some time before made prepara- 
tions to fortify Ma king yun,J they now retired 
to it. The pirates knowing that the villagers 
were well provided for defence, waited until 

(14 V.) they had every thing ready. On the fourth 
the pirates landed ; it was in vain that the 
villagers opposed them, they had two men 

* Lvm ya, Laou ya kang, the mountain ridge bf Laou ya, is fif- 
teen le from the town of the third rank called ShVt ching. Shih 
ching; heen belongs to the district Kaou chow foo. Kwang tung- 
tsuen too, 16v. 9r. 

t Crackers made of gunpowder, and the gong, are used at every 
Chinese festival. 

j: The name of a, temple which Europeans commonly call a 



wounded, and were finally defeated. The Go- 1810. 
vernor-general ordered Ching chuy loo to pro- 
ceed at the head of a large body of soldiers to 
the town Shun tih, and prepare for an attack. 
Meeting the pirates at Ke chow, the Major 
attacking them on a sudden, the pirates sus- 
tained a great loss, and returned to their vessels. 
The Major also was struck by a shot from a 
musket. There were daily skirmishes at the 
neighbouring places ; the inhabitants were ge- 
nerally defeated and ran away. The Major 
Loo came with his forces and placed them on 
the sea-coast behind the intrenchments of Sin 
ne, to protect them against the fire of the 
enemy. The guns of the pirates were directed 
against the place, the bullets fell in Sin ne, but 
without hurting any one, which again calmed 
and encouraged the inhabitants. The pirates (15 r.) 
coming a second time before Ke chow and Ta 
leang, and not being able to accomplish their 
designs, thought fit to retire. 

The wife of Ching yih, on seeing that O po tae 
was made a government officer after his submis- ^ 
sion, and that he did well, thought also of making 



1810. her submission. " I am," said she, " ten times 
stronger than O po tae, and government would 
perhaps, if I submit, act towards me as they did 
with O po tae." But remembering their former 
crimes, and the opposition they made to many 
officers, these pirates were apprehensive and felt 
undetermined in their resolutions. A rumour 
(15 V.) went about, that the red squadron wished to 
tender their submission, and, in consequence, the 
vigilant magistrates hearing of this, invited them 
to do so. The magistrate of Tsze ne, Yu che 
chang, ordered a certain Fei heung^ chow to 
make enquiries about the matter. Fei heung 
chow was a physician of Macao, and being well 
acquainted with the pirates, he was not in need 
of any introduction to obtain access to them. 
This was the ground on which Yu chi chang 
particularly selected him, when he tried to bring 
the pirates to submission. 

When Fei heung chow came toPaou, he said: 
' ' Friend Paou, do you know why I come to you?" 

Paou. 一 "Thou hast committed some crime 
and comest to me for protection V, 

Chow. 一 " By no means." 



Paou. 一 " You will then know, how it stands 1810. 
concerning the report about our submission, if it 
is true or false ?,, 

Chow. ― " You are again wrong here, Sir.* 
What are you in comparison with O po tae?" 

Paou. ― " Who is bold enough to compare me (16 r) 
with O po tae ?" 

Chow. 一 " I know very well that O po tae 
could not come up to you, Sir ; but I mean only, 
that since O po tae has made his submission, 
since he has got his pardon and been created a 
government officer, ― how would it be, if you 
with your whole crew should also submit, and if 
his Excellency should desire to treat you in the 
same manner, and to give you the same rank as 
O po tae ? Your submission would produce 
more joy to government than the submission of 
O po tae. You should not wait for wisdom to 
act wisely ; you should make up your mind to 
submit to the government with all your followers. 

• Keun in Chinese, Kwa according to the Canton pronunci- 
ation. It is true it is somewhat awkward to speak of Madam 
Ching and Mr. Paou, but it maybe remarked that the Chinese use 
their familiar expressions foo or keun in the same manner as we 
use Mr. and Mrs. 



1810. I will assist you in every respect, ― it would be 
the means of securing your own happiness and 
the lives of all your adherents." 

Chang paou remained like a statue without 
motion, and Fei heung chow went on to say : 

(16 V.) " You should think about this affair in time, 
and not stay till the last moment. Is it not 
clear that O po tae, since you could not agree 
together, has joined government. He being 
enraged against you, will fight, united with the 
forces of the government, for your destruction ; 
and who could help you, so that you might 
overcome your enemies ? If O po tae could 
before vanquish you quite alone, how much 
more can he now when he is united with govern- 
ment ? O po tae will then satisfy his hatred 
against you, and you yourself will soon be taken 
either at Wei chow or at Neaou chow. If the 
merchant-vessels of Hwy chaou, the boats of 
Kwang chow, and all the fishing- vessels unite 

(17 r.) together to surround and attack you in the open 
sea, you will certainly have enough to do. But 
even supposing they should not attack you, you 
will soon feel the want of provisions, to sustain 



you and all your followers. It is always wisdom 1810. 
to provide before things happen ; stupidity and 
folly never think about future events. It is too 
iate to reflect upon events when things have 
happene ; you should, therefore, consider this 
matter in time !" 

Paou held a deliberation with the wife of 
Ching yih, and she said : " The Doctor Chow 
is certainly right in all that he says ; Paou may 
agree with him." Paou then asked the Doctor : 
" Have you any commission about this matter, 
or not ?" The Doctor answered, " How could 
I trifle with the sentiments of government ; this 
would be declared an improper behaviour. (17 v.) 
Neither can I see through the intentions of 
the wife of Ching yih nor through those of the 、 
officers of government ; you can clear up all 
doubts, if you will collect your vessels about 
Shao keo, outside the Bocca Tigris, you may 
yourself hear the orders." 

Paou consented to this proposal, and the Doctor 
returned to Yu che chang. Yu che chang ac- 
quainted the Governor-general with this matter. 
The general was anxious to meet the pirates and 




1810. to clear the western passage, as he had already 
cleared the eastern passage ; he therefore was 
very happy at hearing the offer of surrender. 
The magistrate of Tsze ne, Yu che chang, took 
the government proclamation and went to the 
pirates to see how things stood. The wife of 
Ching yih on seeing Yu che chang, ordered 
Chang paou to prepare a banquet. Chang paou 
explained his intentions. Yu che chang re- 
mained the whole night on board ship, and 
stated that government was willing to pardon 

(18 r ) them, and that they had nothing to fear after 
having made their submission. Paou was very 
much rejoiced at this ; and on the next morning 
he went with Yu che chang to inspect the ves- 
sels, and ordered all the captains to pay their 
respects to the government officer. The wife of 
Ching yih stated to Yu che chang that it was 
her earnest wish to submit to government ;" and 
Chang paou himself assured the officer of his firm 
intention to surrender without the least deceit. 
The governor then ordered Yu che chang to visit 
the pirates a second time, accompanied by Pang 
noo, in order to settle all with them regarding 



their submission. Chang paou requested that 1810. 
those pirates who had been condemned to death 
should be placed in ten vessels, in order that he 
might ransom them. Yu che chang reported 
this, and the Governor said : "It shall be so, 
whether Chang paou submit himself or not. 
But being exceedingly desirous that the pirates 
may surrender, I will go myself and state my 
intentions, to clear up all doubts." 

He ordered the Doctor Fei heung chow to ac- 
quaint the pirates with his design. The Gover- (18 v.) 
nor- general then embarked in a vessel with 
Pang noo and Yu che chang to meet the pirates, 
where they were assembled ; ― their vessels oc- 
cupied a space of about ten le. On hearing 
that the Governor-general was coming, they 、 
hoisted their flags, played on their instruments, 
and fired their guns, so that the smoke rose in 
clouds, and then went to meet him. From the 
other side the people all became alarmed, and 
the Governor-general himself was very much 
astonished, being yet uncertain what could be the 
meaning of all this alarm. Chang paou, accom- 
panied by the wife of Ching yih, by Pang chang 



1810. ching, Leangpopaou, and Soo puh gaou, mounted 
the governor's ship, and rushed through the smoke 
to the place where the governor was stationed. 
The Governor-general on seeing Paou and his 
followers falling on their hands and knees, that 
(19 r.) they shed tears on account of their former 
crimes, and sued penitently for their lives, was 
induced by his extreme kindness to declare 
that he would again point out to the rebels the 
road to virtue. Paou and his followers were 
extremely affected, knocked their heads on the 
ground, and swore that they were ready to suffer 
death. But the Governor replied : " Since 
you are ready to submit yourselves with a true 
heart, I will lay aside all arms and disperse 
the soldiery ; to say it in one word, I give you 
three days to make up a list of your vessels and 
all your other possessions. Are you satisfied 
with this proposal or not ?" Paou and his fol- 
lowers said " ges, yes," and retired accordingly. 

It happened that about the same time some 
Portuguese vessels were about to enter the 
Bocca Tigris, and that some large men-of-war 
took their station at the same place. The pirates 



became exceedingly alarmed at this fleet, and 1810. 
apprehended that the Governor had made an 
agreement with the foreign vessels to destroy 
them. They immediately weighed their anchors 
and steered away. On seeing the pirates run- (19 v.) 
ning away, Pang noo, V^u che chang, and the 
others, not knowing what could be the reason of 
all this, became afraid that they might have 
changed their mind, and that an attack on the 
Governor was contemplated. All parties became 
frightened that the meeting had failed, and made 
preparations to go off. The inhabitants of the 
neighbouring country hearing of this, ran away, 
and the Governor-general himself went back to 

When the pirates ascertained that the foreign 
vessels were traders going into the river, and 
that the Governor-general had no communication 
with them, they again became pacified. But 
considering that the Governor-general went back 
to Canton without the business of their sub- 
mission being quite settled, they held a consul- 
tation together and Paou said : " His Excellency 
is gone back, and probably in doubt about our 



1810. intentions ; if we tender our submission again, 
(20 r.) his Excellency will not trust us, and if we do 
not submit we shall insult the good intentions of 
government. What is to be done under these 
circumstances ?" 

The wife of Ching yih said : " His Excellency 
behaved himself towards us in a candid manner, 
and in like manner we must behave towards 
him. We being driven about on the ocean, 
without having- any fixed habitation ; 一 pray let 
us go to Canton to inform government, to state 
the reason of the recoiling waves, to clear up all 
doubts, and to agree on what day or in what 
place we shall make our submission. His Ex- 
cellency may then explain to us whether he will 
come a second time to accept our submission, 
or whether he will decline it." 

The whole crew was of opinion, that " the 
designs of government were unfathomable, and 
that it would not be prudent to go so hastily on." 
But the wife of Ching yih replied : "If his 
(20 V.) Excellency, a man of the highest rank, could 
come quickly to us quite alone, why should I a 
mean woman not go to the officers of govern- 



ment? If there be any danger in it, 1 will take 1810. 
it on myself, no person among you will be re- 
quired to trouble himself about it." 

Leang po paou said : " If the wife of Ching 
y"fh goes, we must fix a time when she shall 
return. If this time be past without our ob- 
taining any certain information, we should col- 
lect all our forces and go before Canton.* This 
is my opinion ; if you think otherwise, let us re- 
tire ; but let me hear your opinion ?" They all 
answered : " Friend Paou, we have heard thy 
opinion, but we think it rather better to wait for 
the news here on the water, than to send the 
wife of Ching yih alone to be killed." This was 
the result of the consultation. 

Yu che chang and Fei heung chow, on seeing (21 r.) 
that nothing was settled about the submission 
to government, became alarmed, and sent Chao 
kaou yuen to Chang paou to enquire what was 
the reason of it. On learning that they ran 
away from fear of the foreign vessels, Yu che 
chang and Fei heung chow made another visit to 
the pirates, in order to correct this mistake. 

* In the text is only Chow (1355) ; but I think it must here be 
taken for the city or town of Canton. 



1810. " If you let slip this opportunity," said they, 
" you will not be accepted, perhaps, should 
you even be willing to make your submission. 
The kindness of his Excellency is immense like 
the sea, without being mixed with any false- 
hood ; we will pledge ourselves that the wife of 
Ching yih, if she would go, would be received 
with kindness." 

The wife of Ching yih said : " You speak 
well, gentlemen ; T will go myself to Canton 
with some other ladies, accompanied by Yu che 

Chang paou said, laughingly : "I am sorry his 
(21 V.) Excellency should have any doubt regarding us, 
for this reason, therefore, we will send our wives 
to settle the affair for us." 

When the wives and children appeared before 
him, the Governor- general said to them : " You 
did not change your mind, but ran away, being 
deceived by a false impression ; for this reason 
I will take no notice of it. I am commanded 
by the humanity of his Majesty's government 
not to kill but to pardon you ; I therefore now 
pardon Chang paou." 



In consequence of this, Chang paou came with 1810. 
his wives and children, and with the wife of Ching 
yih, atFooyimg'shao near the town of Heang shan 
to submit himself to government. Every vessel 
was provided with pork and wine, and every 
man received at the same time a bill for a cer- 
tain quantity of money. Those who wished it, 
could join the military force of government for 
pursuing the remaining pirates ; and those who 
objected, dispersed and withdrew into the coun- 
try. This is the manner by which the red squa- 
dron of the pirates was pacified. 

After the submission of Chang paou, the Go- (22 r.) 
vernor- general said : " Now that we have cleared, 
both the eastern and the middle passage, we are 
ready to reduce the pirates of the western pas- 
sage. He held a consultation about this matter 
with the deputy-governor Han fung, and then 
ordered the principal officer of the public gra- 
nary, Mwan ching che, and the military com- 
mandant of Luy chow foo, Kang chow foo, and 
Keimg chow foo, called Chuh url kang gih,* to 

* About the towns which are mentioned in our text, the 
reader may compare the notes to the first book. It is quite impos- 




1810. proceed at the head of the forces and drive the 
pirates away. It was presumed that they would 
retire more westerly to Annam ; a message was 
therefore sent to the king of that country to 
have ready an armed force to repulse the pirates, 
whenever they should appear on the rivers or 
on the mainland.* Chang paou was ordered on 
the vanguard. 

sible to ascertain by the text alone if there was only one military 
officer appointed for all these placQs or not. In the latter case it 
would be necessary to read Chuh url and Kangf glh ; but we see by 
p. 95 that Chuh url kang- gih is the name of one commander. 

* Tung" king and Cochin-China now form one empire, under 
the name of Annam or Annan. The king- of this country ac- 
knowledges the supremacy of the Chinese emperor, and sends 
every year a tribute to Pekin. The time of the reign of every 
king is known by an honorary title, like that of the emperors 
of China. The honorary title of the period of the reign- 
ing king, to whom the message was sent, was Kea lung 
(good fortune), the younger brother of King ching^ called by his 
proper name Fiih ying (according to the Chinese Mandarin pro- 
nunciation) : he is often mentioned in the beginning- of the first book 
of our History of the Pirates, The king, commonly called Kea 
lung, died Feb. 1820, in the 】9th year of his reign. His son, 
who still reigns, mounted the throne on the third day after his 
father's death, assuming the words Ming ming (Illustrious fortune), 
as the designation of his reign. See the " Indo-Chinese Gleaner," 
vol. i. p. 360, It was falsely reported that Ming ming was mur- 
dered some days after his succession to the throne (Indo-Chinese 
Gleaner, 1. c. p. 416), and this report is stated as a fact in the 
generally very accurate work, Hamilton's East-India Gazetteer, 



By the tenth day of the fourth moon the 1810. 
vessels and the crew were quite ready, and fell 
in on the twelfth of the same month with the 
yellow flag quite alone at Tse sing yang. Our 
commander valiantly attacked this squadron, 
and defeated it entirely. The captain Le tsung (22 v.) 
chaou, with three hundred and ninety of his 
people, were taken prisoners. Meeting a di- 
vision of the green flag, consisting of ten pirate 
vessels, our commander attacked them. The 
pirates being afraid, ran away ; but our com- 
mander pursued after and killed them. Those 
who were taken alive were beheaded. 

On the tenth day of the fifth moon the Go- 
vernor-general went to Kaou chow to make pre- 
parations for fighting. Our commander pursued 
after the pirates with a great and strong body of 
troops ; he met Neaou shih url at Tan chow, 
and they fought a great battle. Neaou shih url 
saw that he was not strong enough to withstand 

vol. i. p. 430. The reader may find some interesting particulars 
concerning the present state of Cochin-China, in the Canton Re- 
gister 1829, No. 13. Chinese influence sccins to be now prodo- 
miimtin^ in that country. 



1810. them, and tried to escape ; but the Major, Fei 
teaou hwang,* gave orders to surround the pi- 

(23 r.) rates. They fought from seven o'clock in the 
morning till one at noon, burnt ten vessels, and 
killed an immense number of the pirates. Neaou 
shih url was so weakened that he could scarce- 
ly make any opposition. On perceiving this 
through the smoke, Chang paou mounted on a 
sudden the vessel of the pirate, and cried out : 
" I Chang paou am come," and at the same mo- 
ment he cut some pirates to pieces ; the remain- 
der were then hardly dealt with. Paou address- 
ed himself in an angry tone to Neaou shih url, 
and said : "I advise you to submit, will you 
not follow my advice, what have you to say ?,, 
Neaou shih url was struck with amazement, 
and his courage left him. Leang po paou ad- 
vanced and bound him, and the whole crew 
were then taken captives. 

Seeing that Neaou shih url was taken, his 
elder brother Yew kwei would have run away 
in all haste ; but the admirals Tung and Tsuen 

(23 V.) mow sun pursued, attacked, and took him 

* Teaou (10044) in our text is written with a vulgar character. 



prisoner. The government officers Kung gao 1810. 
and Hoo tso chaou took the younger brother of 
Neaou shKh url, called Mih yew keih, and all the 
others then made their submission. Not long 
after this the Scourge of the eastern ocean sur- 
rendered voluntarily, on finding himself unable 
to withstand ; the Frog's meal withdrew to 
Luzon or Manilla. On the twentieth of the 
same month, the Governor-general came to 
Luy chow, and every officer was ordered to 
bring his prizes into the harbour or bay of 
Man ke. There were taken fighting five hun- 
dred pirates, men and women ; three thousand 
four hundred and sixty made their submission ; 
there were eighty-six vessels, two hundred and 
ninety-one guns, and one thousand three hundred 
and seventy-two pieces of various military- 
weapons. The Governor-general ordered one 
of his officers to kill* the pirate Neaou shih url 
with eight others outside the northern entrance 
of Hae kang heen,t and to behead Hwang ho (24 r.) 

* Chih (Kang he under radical 112. B. vii. p. 19 r.) seems to 
indicate that they have been put to death by cutting one member 
after another. 

十 Hae kang is a town of the third rank and dependent on the 



1810. with one hundred and nineteen of his followers. 
The Scourge of the eastern sea submitting himself 
voluntarily was not put to death. 

There was much talk concerning a man at 
Hae kang heen, whose crime was of such a na- 
ture that it could not be overlooked. When 
this man was carried away to suffer death, his 
wife pressed him in her arms, and said with 
great demonstration of sorrow, " Because thou 
didst not follow my words, it is even thus. I 
said before what is now come to pass, that thou 
fighting as a pirate against the officers of govern- 
ment would be taken and put to death. This 
fills my mind with sorrow. If thou hadst made 
thy submission like O potae and Chang paou, thou 
(24 V.) wouldst have been pardoned like them ; thou 
art now given up to the law, not by any power 
of man, but by the will of fate." Having 
finished these words, she cried exceedingly. 
The Governor-general was moved by these 

district metropolis Luy chow foo. Luy chow foo is westerly from 
Canton 1380 le. Hae kang is near to its district metropolis 
Kwang tung tsuen too, p. v. 9 v. See the Notes, p 9, of this work. 



words, and commuted the punishment of that 1810. 
pirate into imprisonment. 

In this manner the western passage was 
cleared from the green, yellow, and blue squa- 
drons, and smaller divisions. The rest of the 
pirates, who remained about Hae kang, at 
Hae fung, at Suy ke and Ho poo, were gra- 
dually destroyed.* The Governor- general or- 
dered Chuh url kang gih and Mwan ching che 
to go with an armed force and sweep away 
those pirates, who hid themselves in the re- 
cesses of Wei chow and Neaou chow. And 
thus finished this meritorious act of the Pacifica- 
tion of the pirates. 

By an edict of the " Son of Heaven," the (25 r.) 
Governor- general of Kwang tung and Kwang se 

• Hae fung is a town of the third rank, and dependent on the 
district metropolis Hwy chow foo. It is in a north-east direction 
from its district metropolis 300 le. Its area contains forty le, and 
pays 17,2fi6 leang in taxes. 

Suy ke is a town of the third rank, and dependent upon the dis- 
trict metropolis Luy chow foo ; distance from Luy chow foo in a 
northerly direction 180 le. 

Ho poo is a town of the third rank, and dependant on the 
district metropolis Leen chow foo. This town is near to the dis- 
trict metropolis, has an area of thirty le, and pays 7,458 leang in 
taxes. Kwang tung tsuen too, p. 6 r. p. 9 v. 


1810. Pih, ling was recompensed for his merits. He 
was created a secondary guardian of the Prince, 
allowed to wear peacock's-feathers with two 
eyes, and favoured with an hereditary title- 
The services of the different officers and com- 
manders were taken into consideration, and 
they received adequate recompenses. Chang 
paou was appointed to the rank of Major; Tung 
hae pa, or, the Scourge of the eastern sea, and 
all others, were pardoned, with the permission 
to retire wherever they wished. From that pe- 
riod till now ships pass and repass in tranquillity. 
All is quiet on the rivers, the four seas are tran- 
quil, and people live in peace and plenty. 


— ♦ — 

The Translator supposing that the readers of the 
History of the Chinese Pirates might perhaps find it in- 
teresting to compare the account of the followers of The 
wife of Ching yih, drawn up by an European, with the 
statements of the non-official Chinese historian ; he has 
therefore thought fit to subjoin a Narrative of the cap- 
tivity and treatment amongst the Ladrmes, written by 
Mr. Richard Glasspoole, of the Hon. Company's ship 
Marquis of Ely, and published in Wilkinson's Travels to 
China. The Translator in vain endeavoured to obtain 
another Narrative, regarding the Chinese pirates, which 
is said to be printed in an English periodical. 

A brief Narrative of my captivity and treatment amongst 
the Ladrones. 

On the 17th of September 1809, the Honourable 
Company's ship Marquis of Ely anchored under the 
Island of Sam Chow, in China, about twelve English 
miles from Macao, where I was ordered to proceed in 




one of our cutters to procure a pilot, and also to land 
the purser with the packet. I left the ship at 5 p.m. 
with seven men under my command, well armed. It 
blew a fresli gale from the N. E. We arrived at Macao 
at 9 P.M., where I delivered the packet to Mr. Roberts, 
and sent the men with the boat's -sails to sleep under 
the Company's Factory, and left the boat in charge of 
one of the Compradore's men ; during the night the 
gale increased. ― At half-past three in the morning I 
went to the beach, and found the boat on shore half- 
filled with water, in consequence of the man having left 
her. I called the people, and baled her out; found 
she was considerably damaged, and very leaky. At 
half-past 5 a.m., the ebb-tide making, we left Macao 
with vegetables for the ship. 

One of the Compradore's men who spoke English 
went with us for the purpose of piloting the ship to 
Lintin, as the Mandarines, in consequence of a late 
disturbance at Macao, would not grant chops for the 
regular pilots. I had every reason to expect the ship 
in tlie roads, as she was preparing to get under weigh 
when we left her ; but on our rounding Cabaretta- 
Point, we saw her five or six miles to leeward, under 
weigh, standing on the starboard-tack : it was then 
blowing fresh at N. E. Bore up, and stood towards 
her ; when about a cable's- length to windward of her, 
she tacked ; we hauled our wind and stood after her. 

A I' P I: \ 1)1 X, 


A hard squall then coming on, with a strong tide ami 
heavy swell against us, we drifted fast to leeward, and 
the weather being hazy, we soon lost sight of the ship. 
Struck our masts, and endeavoured to pull ; finding 
our efforts useless, set a reefed foresail and mizen, and 
stood towards a country- ship at anchor under the land 
to leeward of Cabaretta- Point. When within a quarter 
of a mile of her she weighed and made sail, leaving 
us ill a very critical situation, having no anchor, and 
drifting bodily on the rocks to leeward. Struck the 
masts : after four or five hours hard pulling, succeeded 
in clearing them. 

At this lime not a ship in sight ; the weather clearing 
up, we saw a ship to leeward, hull down, shipped our 
masts, and made sail towards her ; she proved to be 
the Honourable Company's ship Glatton. We made 
signals to her with our handkerchiefs at the mast-head, 
she unfortunately took no notice of them, but tacked 
and stood from us. Our situation was now truly dis- 
tressing, night closing fast, with a threatening appear- 
ance, blowing fresh, with hard rain and a heavy sea ; 
our boat very leaky, without a compass, anchor or pro- 
visions, and drifting fast on a lee-shore, surrounded 
with dangerous rocks, and inhabited by the most bar- 
barous pirates. I close-reefed my sails, and kept tack 
and tack 'till day-light, when we were happy to find 
we iiad drifted very little to leeward of our situation in 


A 1) 1' !•: X D I X . 

the evening. The night was very dark, with constant 
hard squalls and heavy rain. 

Tuesday the 19th no ships in sight. About ten 
o'clock in the morning it fell calm, with very hard rain 
and a heavy swell ; 一 struck our masts and pulled, not 
being ab】e to see the land, steered by the swell. When 
the weather broke up, found we had drifted several 
miles to leeward. During the calm a fresh breeze 
springing up, made sail, and endeavoured to reach tlie 
weather-shore, and anchor with . six muskets we had 
lashed together for that purpose. Finding the boat 
made no way against the swell and tide, bore up for a 
bay to leeward, and anchored about one a.m. close 
under the land in five or six fathoms water, blowing 
fresh, with hard rain. 

Wednesday the 20th at day- light, supposing the 
flood-tide making, weighed and stood over to the wea- 
ther-land, but found we were drifting fast to leeward. 
About ten o'clock perceived two Chinese boats steering 
for us. Bore up, and stood towards them, and made 
signals to induce them to come within hail ; on nearing 
them, they bore up, and passed to leeward of the 
islands. The Chinese we had in the boat advised me 
to follow them, and he would take us to Macao by the 
leeward passage. I expressed my fears of being taken 
by the Ladrones. Our ammunition being wet, and the 
muskets rendered useless, we had nothing to defend 



ourselves with but cutlasses, and in too distressed a 
situation to make much resistance with them, having 
been constantly wet, and eat nothing but a few green 
oranges for three days. 

As our present situation was a hopeless one, and the 
man assured me there was no fear of encountering any 
Ladrones, I complied with his request, and stood in to 
】eewai'd of the islands, where we found the water much 
smoother, and apparently a direct passage to Macao. 
We continued pulling and sailing all day. At six 
o'clock in the evening I discovered three large boats at 
anchor in a bay to leeward. On seeing us they weighed 
and made sail towards us. The Chinese said they were 
Ladrones, and that if they captured us they would most 
certainly put us all to death ! Finding they gained 
fast on us, struck the masts, and pulled head to wind 
for five or six hours. The tide turning against us, 
anchored close under the land to avoid being seen. 
Soon after we saw the boats pass us to leeward. 

Thursday the 2 1st, at day-light, the flood making, 
weighed and pulled along shore in great spirits, expect- 
ing to be at Macao in two or three hours, as by the 
Chinese account it was not above six or seven miles 
distant. After pulling a mile or two perceived several 
people on shore, standing close to the beach ; they were 
armed with pikes and lances. I ordered the interpreter 
to hail them, and ask the most direct passage to Macao. 



They said if we came on shore they would inform us; 
not liking their hostile appearance I did not think 
proper to comply with the request. Saw a large fleet 
of boats at anchor close under the opposite shore. Our 
interpreter said they were fishing- boats, and that by 
going there we should not only get provisions, but a 
pilot also to take us to Macao. 

I bore up, and on nearing them perceived there 
were some large vessels, very full of men, and mounted 
with several guns. I hesitated to approach nearer ; 
but the Chinese assuring me they were Mandarine 
junks* and salt-boats, we stood close to one of them, 
and asked the way to Macao ? They gave no answer, 
but made some signs to us to go in shore. We passed 
on, and a large row-boat pulled after us ; she soon came 
along-side, when about twenty savage-looking villains, 
who were stowed at the bottom of the boat, leaped on 
board us. They were armed with a short sword in 
each hand, one of which they laid on our necks, and 
the other pointed to our breasts, keeping their eyes 
fixed on their officer, waiting his signal to cut or desist. 
Seeing we were incapable of making any resistance, he 
sheathed his sword, and the others immediately followed 
his example. They then dragged us into their boat, 
and carried us on board one of their junks, with the 
most savage demonstrations of joy, and as we supposed, 
* Junk is the Canton pronunciation of cJim ii, ship. 

A PP K N I) I X . 


to torture and put us to a cruel death. When on board 
the junk, they searched all our pockets, took the luind- 
kerchiefs from our necks, and brought heavy chains to 
chain us to the guns. 

At this time a boat came, and took me, with one of 
my men and the interpreter, on board the chief's vessel. 
1 was then taken before the chief. He was seated on 
deck, in a large chair, dressed in purple silk, with a 
black turban on. He appeared to be about thirty 
years of age, a stout commanding-looking man. He 
took me by the coat, and drew me close to him ; then 
questioned the interpreter very strictly, asking who we 
were, and what was our business in that part of the 
country. I told him to say we were Englishmen in 
distress, having been four days at sea without provi- 
sions. This he would not credit, but said we were bad 
men, and that he would put us all to death ; and then 
ordered some men to put the interpreter to the torture 
until lie confessed the truth. 

Upon this occasion, a Lad rone, who had been once 
to England and spoke a few words of English, came to 
the chief, and told him we were really Englishmen, and 
that we had plenty of money, adding, that the buttons 
on my coat were gold. The chief then ordered us some 
coarse brown rice, of which we made a tolerable meal, 
having eat nothing for nearly four days, except a few 
green oranges. During our repast, a number of La- 



drones crowded round us, examining our clothes and 
hair, and giving us every possible annoyance. Several 
of them brought swords, and laid ibem on our necks, 
making signs that they would soon take us on shore, 
and cut us in pieces, which I am sorry to say was the 
fate of some hundreds during my captivity. 

I was now summoned before the chief, who had been 
conversing with the interpreter : he said I must write 
to my captain, and tell him, if lie die! not send an hun- 
dred thousand dollars for our ransom, in ten days he 
would put us all to death. In vain did I assure him it 
was useless writing unless he would agree to take a 
much smaller sum ; saying we were all poor men, and 
the most we could possibly raise would not exceed two 
thousand dollars. Finding that he was much exaspe- 
rated at my expostulations, I embraced the offer of 
writing to inform my commander of our unfortunate 
situation, though there appeared not the least proba- 
bility of relieving us. They said the letter should be 
conveyed to Macao in a fishing-boat, which would 
bring an answer in the morning. A small boat accord- 
ingly came alongside, and took the letter. 

About six o'clock in the evening they gave us some 
rice and a little salt fish, which we eat, and they made 
signs for us to lay down on the deck to sleep ; but such 
numbers of Ladrones were constantly coming from dif- 
ferent vessels to see us, and examine our clothes and 



hair, they would not allow us a moment's quiet. They 
were particularly anxious for the buttons of my coat, 
which were new, and as they supposed gold. I took it 
off, and laid it on the deck to avoid being disturbed by 
them ; it was taken away in the night, and I saw it on 
the next day stripped of its buttons. 

About nine o'clock a boat came and hailed the chief*s 
vessel ; he immediately hoisted his mainsail, and the 
fleet weighed apparently in great confusion. They 
worked to windward all night and part of the next 
day, and anchored about one o'clock in a bay under 
the island of Lantow, where the head admiral of La- 
drones was lying at anchor, with about two hundred ves- 
sels and a Portuguese brig they had captured a few days 
before, and murdered the captain and part of the crew. 

Saturday the 23d, early in the morning, a fishing- 
boat came to the fleet to inquire if they had captured 
an European boat; being answered in the affirmative, 
they came to the vessel I was in. One of them spoke a 
few words of English, and told me he had a Ladrone- 
pass, and was sent by Captain Kay in search of us ; I 
was rather surprised to find he had no letter. He ap- 
peared to be well acquainted with the chief, and re- 
mained in his cabin smoking opium, and playing cards 
all the day.* 

* The pirates had many other intimate acquaintances on shore, 
like Doctor Chow of Macao. 




In the evening I was summoned with the interpreter 
before the chief. He questioned us in a much milder 
tone, saying, he now believed we were Englishmen, a 
people he wished to be friendly with ; and that if our 
captain would lend him seventy thousand dollars 'till 
he returned from his cruize up the river, he would repay 
him, and send us all to Macao. I assured him it was 
useless writing on those terms, and unless our ransom 
was speedily settled, the English fleet would sail, and 
render our enlargement altogether ineffectual. He re- 
mained determined, and said if it were not sent, he 
would keep us, and make us fight, or put us to death. 
I accordingly wrote, and gave my letter to the man be- 
longing to the boat before -mentioned. He said he 
could not return with an answer in less than five days. 

The chief now gave me the letter I wrote when first 
taken. I have never been able to ascertain his reasons 
for detaining it, but suppose he dare not negotiate for 
our ransom without orders from the head admiral, who 
I understood was sorry at our being captured. He 
said the English ships would join the mandarines and 
attack them.* He told the chief that captured us, to 
dispose of us as he pleased. 

* The pirates were always afraid of this. We find the fol- 
lowing statement concerning- the Chinese pirates, taken from 
the records in the East-India House, and printed in Appen- 
dix C. to the Report relative to the trade with the East- Indies 



Monday the 24tli, it blew a strong gale, with con- 
stant hard rain ; we suffered much from the cold and 
wet, being obliged to remain on deck with no covering 
but an old mat, which was frequently taken from us in 
the night, by the Ladrones who were on watch. Dur- 
ing the night the Portuguese who were left in the brig 
murdered the Ladrones that were on board of her, cut 
the cables, and fortunately escaped through the dark- 
ness of the night. I have since been informed they run 
her on shore near Macao . 

Tuesday the 25th, at day-light in the morning, the 
fleet, amounting to about five hundred sail of different 
sizes, weighed, to proceed on their intended cruize up 
the rivers, to levy contributions on the towns and vil- 
lages. It is impossible to describe what were my feelings 

and China, in the sessions 1820 and 1821 (reprinted 1829), 
p 387. 

" In the year 1808, 1809, and 1810, the Canton river was so in- 
fested with pirates, who were also in such force, that the Chinese 
government made an attempt to subdue them, but failed. The 
pirates totally destroyed the Chinese force ; ravaged the river in 
every direction ; threatened to attack the city of Canton, and de- 
stroyed many towns and villages on the banks of the river ; and 
killed or carried off, to serve as Ladrones, several thousands of in- 

" These events created an alarm extremely prejudicial to the 
commerce of Canton, and compelled the Company's supercargoes 
to fit out a small country ship to cruize for a short time against the 



at this critical time, having received no answers to my 
letters, and die fleet under-way to sail, ― hundreds of 
miles up a country never visited by Europeans, there 
to remain probably for many months, which would 
render all opportunities of negotiating for our enlarge- 
ment totally ineffectual ; as the only method of com- 
munication is by boats, that have a pass from the La- 
(h'oiies, and they dare not venture above twenty miles 
from Macao, being obliged to come and go in the night, 
to avoid the Mandarines ; and if these boats should be 
detected in having any intercourse with the Ladrones, 
they are immediately put to death, and all their rela- 
tions, though they had not joined in the crime,* share 
in the punishment, in order that not a single person of 
theu- families should be left to imitate their crimes or 
revenge their death. This severity renders commu- 
nication both dangerous and expensive ; no boat 
would venture out for less than a hundred Spanish 

Wednesday the 26th, at day-light, we passed in sight 
of our ships at anchor under the island of Chun Po. 
•The chief then called me, pointed to the ships, and told 
the interpreter to tell us to look at them, for we should 
never see them again. About noon we entered a river 

* j hat tlie whole family must suffer for the crime of one indi- 
vidual, seems to be the loost cruel and foolish law of the whole 
Cliineso criminal code. 



to the westward of the Bogue, three or four miles from 
the entrance. We passed a large town situated on the 
side of a beautiful hill, which is tributary to the La- 
drones ; the inhabitants saluted them with songs as they 

The fleet now divided into two squadrons (the red 
and the black) I* and sailed up different branches of the 
river. At midnight the division we were in anchored 
close to an immense hill, on the top of which a number 
of fires were burning, which at day-light I perceived 
proceeded from a Chinese camp At the back of the 
hill was a most beautiful town, surrounded by water, 
and embellished with groves of orange-trees. The 
chop-house (custom-house):}: and a few cottages were 
immediately plundered, and burnt down ; most of the 
inhabitants, however, escaped to the camp. 

The Lad rones now prepared to attack the town with 
a formidable force, collected in row boats from the dif- 

勢 The Hoo mun, or Bocca Tigris. 

t \V'e know by the " History of the Chinese Pirates," that these 
" Avasps of the ocean," to speak with Yuen tsze yung hm, were 
originally divided into six squadrons. 

X In the barbarous Chinese-English spoken at Canton, all things 
are indiscriminately called chop. You hear of a chop-house, chop- 
boat, tea-chop, Chaou-chaou-chop, etc. To give a bill or aji^ree- 
nient on making a bargain is in Chinese called chd tan ; cha in the 
pronunciation of Canton is chopy which is then applied to any 
writing whatever. See 】)r- Morrison's Entrlisli and Chinese Dic- 
tionary under the word clmp. 



ferent vessels. They sent a messenger to the town, 
demanding a tribute of ten thousand dollars annually, 
saying, if these terms were not complied with, they 
would land, destroy the town, and murder all the inha- 
bitants ; which they would certainly have done, had 
the town laid in a more advantageous situation for their 
purpose ; but being placed out of the reach of their 
shot, they allowed them to come to terms. The inha- 
bitants agreed to pay six thousand dollars, which they 
were to collect by the time of our return down the 
river. This finesse had the desired effect, for during 
our absence they mounted a few guns on a hill, which 
commanded the passage, and gave us in lieu of the 
dollars a warm salute on our return. 

October the 1st, the fleet weighed in the night, 
dropped by the tide up the river, and anchored very 
quietly before a town surrounded by a thick wood. 
Early in the morning the Ladrones assembled in row- 
boats, and landed ; then gave a shout, and rushed into 
the town, sword in hand. The inhabitants fled to the 
adjacent hills, in numbers apparently superior to the 
Ladrones. We may easily imagine to ourselves the 
horror with which these miserable people must be 
seized, on being obliged to leave their homes, and every 
thing dear to them. It was a most melancholy sight to 
see women in tears, clasping their infants in their arms, 
and imploring mercy for them from those brutal 



robbers ! The old and the sick, who were unable to 
fly, or to make resistance ,- were either made prisoners 
or most inhumanly butchered ! The boats continued 
passing and repassing from the junks to the shore, in 
quick succession, laden with booty, and the men be- 
smeared with blood ! Two hundred and fifty women, 
and several children, were made prisoners, and sent on 
board different vessels. They were unable to escape 
with the men, owing to that abominable practice of 
cramping their feet : several of them were not able to 
move without assistance, in fact, they might all be said 
to totter, rather than walk. Twenty of these poor 
women were sent on board the vessel I was in; they 
were hauled on board by the hair, and treated in a most 
savage manner. 

When the chief came on board, he questioned them 
respecting the circumstances of their friends, and de- 
manded ransoms accordingly, from six thousand to six 
hundred dollars each. He ordered them a berth on 
deck, at the after-part of the vessel, where they had no- 
thing to shelter them from the weather, which at this 
time was very variable, ― the days excessively hot, and 
the nights cold, with heavy rains. The town being 
plundered of every thing valuable, it was set on fire, 
and reduced to ashes by the morning. The fleet re- 
mained here three days, negotiating for the ransom 
of the prisoners, and plundering the fish-tanks and 



gardens. During all this time, the Chinese never ven- 
tured from the hills, though there were frequently not 
more than a hundred Laclrones on shore at a time, 
and I am sure the people on the hills exceeded ten 
times that number.* 

October the 5th, the fleet proceeded up another 
branch of the river, stopping at several small villages to 
receive tribute, which was generally paid in dollars, 
sugar and rice, with a few large pigs roasted whole, as 
presents for their joss (the idol they worship).* Every 
person on being ransomed, is obliged to present him 
with a pig, or some fowls, which the priest offers him 
with prayers ; it remains before him a few hours, and is 
then divided amongst the crew. Nothing particular 
occurred 'till the 10th, except frequent skirmishes on 
shore between small parties of Ladrones and Chinese 
soldiers. They frequently obliged my men to go on 
shore, and fight with the muskets we had when taken, 
which did great execution, the Chinese principally 
using bows and arrows. They have match-locks, but 
use them very unskilfully. 、 

* The following is the Character of the Chinese of Canton, as 
given in ancient Chinese hooks : " People of Canton arc silly, light, 
weak in body, and weak in mind, without any ability to fight on 
land." The Indo-Chinese Gleaner, No. 19. 

十 Joss is a Chinese corruption of the Portuguese Dios, God. 
The Joss, or idol, of which Mr. Glasspoole speaks in the San po 
shin, which is spoken of in the work of Yuen tsze. 



On the 10th, we formed a junction with the Black- 
squadron, and proceeded many miles up a wide and beau- 
tiful river, passing several ruins of villages that had been 
destroyed by the Black-squadron. On the 17th, the fleet 
anchored abreast four mud batteries, which defended a 
town, so entirely surrounded with wood that it was im- 
possible to form any idea of its size. The weather was 
very hazy, with hard squalls of rain. The Ladrones 
remained perfectly quiet for two days. On the 
third day the forts commenced a brisk fire for several 
hours : the Ladrones did not return a single shot, 
but weighed in the night and dropped down the 

The reasons they gave for not attacking the town, or 
returning the fire, were, that Joss had not promised 
them success. They are very superstitious, and 
consult their idol on all occasions. If his omens 
are good, they will undertake the most daring en- 

The fleet now anchored opposite the ruins of the 
town where the women had been made prisoners. 
Here we remained five or six days, during which time 
about an hundred of the women were ransomed ; tlie 
remainder were offered for sale amongst the Ladrones, 
for forty dollars each. The woman is considered the 
lawful wife of the purchaser, who would be put to death 
if he discarded her. Several of them leaped over-board 




and drowned themselves, rather than submit to sircli 
infamous degradation.* 

The fleet then weighed and made sail down the riveiv 
to receive the ransom from the town before- mentioned. 
As we passed the hill, they fired several shot at us, but 
without effect. The Ladrones were much exasperated, 
and determined to revenge themselves ; they dropped 
out of reach of their shot, and anchored. Every junk 
sent about a hundred men each on shore, to cut paddy, 
and destroy their orange-groves, which was most effec- 
tually performed for several miles down the river. 
During our stay here, they received information of nine 
boats lying up a creek, laden with paddy ; boats were 
immediately dispatched after them. 

Next morning these boats were brought to the fleet ; 
ten or twelve men were taken in them. As these had 
made no resistance, the chief said he would allow them 
to become Ladrones, if they agreed to take the usual 
oaths before Joss. Three or four of them refused to 
comply, for which they were punished in the following 
cruel manner : their hands were tied behind their back, 
a rope from the mast-head rove through their arms, 
and hoisted three or four feet from the deck, and five 
or six men flogged them with three rattans twisted to- 
gether 'till they were apparently dead ; then hoisted 

* Yuen tszc reported the memorable deed of the beautiful Mei 
Hm-j at the end of the first book of his history.. 



them up to the mast-head, and left them hanging nearly 
•an hour, then lowered them down, and repeated the 
punishment, 'till they died or complied with the oath. 

October the 20th, in the night, an express-boat came 
with the information that a large mandarine fleet was 
proceeding up the river to attack us. The chief imme- 
diately v/eighed, with fifty of the largest vessels, and 
sailed down the river to meet them. About one in the 
morning they commenced a heavy fire till day-light, 
when an express was sent for the remainder of the fleet 
to join them : about an hour after a counter-order to 
anchor came, the mandarine-fleet having run. Two 
or three hours afterwards the chief returned with three 
captured vessels in tow, having sunk two, and eighty - 
three sail made their escape. The admiral of the man- 
darines blew his vessel up, by throwing a lighted match 
into the magazine as the Ladrones were boarding her; 
she ran on shore, and they succeeded in getting twenty 
of her guns. 

In this action very few prisoners were tal<en : the men 
belonging to the captured vessels drowned themselves, 
as they were sure of suffering a lingering and cruel 
death if taken after making resistance. The admiral 
left the fleet in charge of his brother, the second in 
command, and proceeded with his own vessel towards 
Lantow. The fleet remained in this river, cutting* 
paddy, and getting the necessary supplies. 



On the 28th of October, I received a letter from 
Captain Kay, brought by a fisherman, who had told 
him he would get us all back for three thousand dollars. 
He advised me to offer three thousand, and if not ac- 
cepted, extend it to four; but not farther, as it was bad 
policy to offer much at first : at the same time assuring 
me we should be liberated, let the ransom be what it 
would. I offered the chief the three thousand, which 
he disdainfully refused, saying he was not to be played 
with ; and unless they sent ten thousand dollars, and 
two 】ai'ge guns, with several casks of gunpowder, he 
would soon put us all to death. I wrote to Captain 
Kay, and informed him of the chief's determination, 
requesting if an opportunity offered, to send us a shift 
of clothes, for which it may be easily imagined we were 
much distressed, having been seven weeks without a 
shift ; although constantly exposed to the weather, and 
of course frequently wet. 

On the first of November, the fleet sailed up a narrow 
river, and anchored at night within two miles of a town 
called Little Whampoa. In front of it was a small 
fort, and several mandarine vessels lying in the harbour. 
The chief sent the interpreter to me, saying, I must 
order my men to make cartridges and clean their 
muskets, ready to go on shore in the morning. I as- 
sured the interpreter I should give the men no such 
orders, that they must please themselves. Soon after 



the chief came on board, threatening to put us all to a 
cruel death if we refused to obey his orders. For my 
own part I remained determined, and advised the men 
not to comply, as I thought by making ourselves useful 
we should be accounted too valuable. 

A few hours afterwards he sent to me again, saying, 
that if myself and the quarter-master would assist them 
at the great guns, that if also the rest of the men went 
on shore and succeeded in taking the place, he would 
then take the money offered for our ransom, and give 
them twenty dollars for every Chinaman's head they 
cut off. To these proposals we cheerfully acceded, in 
hopes of facilitating our deliverance. 

Early in the morning the forces intended for landing 
were assembled in row-boats, amounting in the whole 
to three or four thousand men. The largest vessels 
weighed, and hauled in shore, to cover the landing of 
the forces, and attack the fort and mandarine-vessels . 
About nine o'clock the action commenced, and conti- 
nued with great spirit for nearly an hour, when the 
walls of the fort gave way, and the men retreated in the 
greatest confusion. 

The mandarine vessels still continued firing, having 
blocked up the entrance of the harbour to prevent the 
Lad rone boats entering. At this the Ladrones were 
much exasperated, and about three hundred of them 
swam on shore, with a short sword lashed close under 



each arm ; they then ran along the banks of the river 
'till they came a- breast of the vessels, and then swam 
off again and boarded them. The Chinese thus at- 
tacked, leaped over-board, and endeavoured to reach 
the opposite shore ; the Ladrones followed, and cut the 
greater number of them to pieces in the water. They 
next towed the vessels out of the harbour, and attacked 
the town with increased fury. The inhabitants fought 
about a quarter of an hour, and then retreated to an 
adjacent hill, from which they were soon driven with 
great slaughter. 

After this the Ladrones returned, and plundered the 
town, every boat leaving it when laden. The Chinese 
on the hills perceiving most of the boats were off, ral- 
lied, and retook the town, after killing near two hundred 
Ladrones. One of my men was unfortunately lost in 
this dreadful massacre ! The Ladrones landed a second 
time, drove the Chinese out of the town, then reduced 
it to ashes, and put all their prisoners to death, without 
regarding either age or sex ! 

I must not omit to mention a most horrid (though 
ludicrous) circumstance which happened at this place. 
The Ladrones were paid by their chief ten dollars for 
every Chinaman's head they produced. One of iny 
men turning the corner of a street was met by a La- 
drone running furiously after a Chinese ; he had a 
drawn sword in his hand, and two Chinaman's heads 



which lie had cut off, tied by their tails, and slung 
round his neck. I was witness myself to some of them 
producing five or six to obtain payment ! ! ! 

On the 4th of November an order arrived from the 
admiral for the fleet to proceed immediately to Lantow, 
where he was lying with only two vessels, and three 
Portuguese ships and a brig constantly annoying him ; 
several sail of mandarine vessels were daily expected. 
The fleet weighed and proceeded towards Lantow. On 
passing the island of Lintin, three ships and a brig gave 
chase to us. The Ladrones prepared to board ; but 
night closing we lost sight of them : I am convinced 
they altered their course and stood from us. These 
vessels were in the pay of the Chinese government, 
and style themselves the Invincible Squadron, cruizing 
in the river Tigris to annihilate the Ladrones ! 

On the fifth, in the morning, the red squadron an- 
chored in a bay under Lantow ; the black squadron 
stood to the eastward. In this bay they hauled several 
of their vessels on shore to bream their bottoms and 
repair them. 

In the afternoon of the 8th of November, four 
ships, a brig and a schooner came off the mouth of the 
bay. At first the pirates were much alarmed, suppos- 
ing them to be English vessels come to rescue us. Some 
of them threatened to hang us to the mast-head for 
them to fire at; and with much difficulty we persuaded 



them that they were Portuguese. The Ladrones had 
only seven junks in a fit state for action ; these they 
hauled outside, and moored them head and stern across 
the bay ; and manned all the boats belonging to the 
repairing vessels ready for boarding. 

The Portuguese observing these manoeuvres hove to, 
and communicated by boats. Soon afterwards they 
made sail, each ship firing her broadside as she passed, 
but without effect, the shot falling far short; The 
Ladrones did not return a single shot, but waved their 
colours, and threw up rockets, to induce them to come 
further in, which they might easily have done, the 
outside junks lying in four fathoms water which I 
sounded myself : though the Portuguese in their letters 
to Macao, lamented there was not sufficient water for 
them to engage closer, but that they would certainly pre- 
vent their escaping before the mandarine fleet arrived ! 

On the 20th of November, early in the morning, 
discovered an immense fleet of mandarine vessels stand- 
ing for the bay. On nearing us, they formed a line, 
and stood close in ; each vessel as she discharged her 
guns tacked to join the rear and reload. They kept 
up a constant fire for about two hours, when one of 
their largest vessels was blown up by a firebrand thrown 
from a Ladrone junk ; after which they kept at a more 
respectful distance, but continued firing without inter- 
mission 'till the 21st at night, when it fell calm. 



The Ladrones towed out seven large vessels, with 
about two hundred row-boats to board them ; but a 
breeze springing up, they made sail and escaped. The 
Ladrones returned into the bay, and anchored. The 
Portuguese and mandarines followed, and continued a 
heavy cannonading during that night and the next day. 
The vessel I was in had her foremast shot away, which 
they supplied very expeditiously by taking a mainmast 
from a smaller vessel. 

On the 23d, in the evening, it again fell calm ; the 
Ladrones towed out fifteen junks in two divisions, with 
the intention of surrounding them, which was nearly 
effected, having come up with and boarded one, when 
a breeze suddenly sprung up. The captured vessel 
mounted twenty-two guns. Most of her crew leaped 
overboard ; sixty or seventy were taken immediately, cut 
to pieces and thrown into the river. Early in the morn- 
ing the Ladrones returned into the bay, and anchored 
in the same situation as before. The Portuguese and 
mandarines followed, keeping up a constant fire. The 
Ladrones never returned a single shot, but always kept 
in readiness to board, and the Portuguese were careful 
never to allow them an opportunity. 

On the 28th, at night, they sent in eight fire-vessels, 
which if properly constructed must have done great 
execution, having every advantage they could wish for 
to effect their purpose ; a strong breeze and tide di- 




rectly into the bay, and the vessels lying so close toge- 
ther that it was impossible to miss them. On their first 
appearance the Lad rones gave a general shout, sup- 
posing them to be mandarine vessels* on fire, but were 
very soon convinced of their mistake. They came very 
regularly into the centre of the fleet, two and two, 
burning furiously ; one of them came alongside of the 
vessel I was in, but they succeeded in booming her off- 
She appeared to be a vessel of about thirty tons ; her 
hold was filled with straw and wood, and there were a 
few small boxes of combustibles on her deck, which 
exploded alongside of us without doing any damage. 
The Ladrones, however, towed them all on shore, ex- 
tinguished the fire, and broke them up for fire- wood. 
The Portuguese claim the credit of constructing these 
destructive machines, and actually sent a dispatch to 
the Governor of Macao, saying they had destroyed at 
least one-third of the Ladrones' fleet, and hoped soon 
to effect their purpose by totally annihilating them. 

On the 29th of November, the Ladrones being all 
ready for sea, they weighed and stood boldly out, 
bidding defiance to the invincible squadron and impe- 
rial fleet, consisting of ninety-three war-junks, six Por- 
tuguese ships, a brig, and a schooner. Immediately the 
Ladrones weighed, they made all sail. The Ladrones 
chased them two or three hours, keeping up a constant 

* The Chan (J lung vessels. 

P P E \ IM X . 


fire; finding they did not come up with them, they 
hauled their wind and stood to the eastward. 

Thus terminated the boasted blockade, which lasted 
nine days, during which time the Ladrones completed 
all their repairs. In this action not a single Ladrone 
vessel was destroyed, and their loss about thirty or forty 
men. An American was also killed, one of three that 
remained out of eight taken in a schooner. I had two 
very narrow escapes : the first, a twelve-pounder shot 
fell within three or four feet of me; another took a 
piece out of a small brass-swivel on which I was stand- 
ing. The chief's wife* frequently sprinkled me with 
garlic-water, which they consider an effectual charm 
against shot. The fleet continued under sail all night, 
steering towards the eastward. In the morning they 
anchored in a large bay surrounded by lofty and barren 

On the 2nd of December I received a letter from 
Lieutenant Maughn, commander of the Honourable 
Company's cruizer Antelope, saying that he had the 
ransom on board, and had been three days cruizing 
after us, and wished me to settle with the chief on the 
securest method of delivering it. The chief agreed to 
send us in a small gun-boat, 'till we came within sight 

* Probably the wife of Ching yih, whose family name was SMh, 
or stone. 



of the Antelope; then the Compradore's boat was to 
bring the ransom and receive us. 

I was so agitated at receiving this joyful news, that 
it was with considerable difficulty I could scrawl about 
two or three lines to inform Lieutenant Maughn of the 
arrangements I had made. We were all so deeply 
affected by the gratifying tidings, that we seldom closed 
our eyes, but continued watching day and night for the 
boat. On the 6th she returned with Lieutenant 
Maughn's answer, saying, he would respect any single 
boat ; but would not allow the fleet to approach him. 
The chief then, according to his first proposal, ordered 
a gun-boat to take us, and with no small degree of plea- 
sure we left the Lad rone fleet about four o'clock in the 

At one P.M. saw the Antelope under all sail, standing 
toward us. The Ladrone boat immediately anchored, 
and dispatched the Compradore's boat for the ransom, 
saying, that if she approached nearer, they would re- 
turn to the fleet ; and they were just weighing when 
she shortened sail, and anchored about two miles from 
us. The boat did not reach her 'till late in the after- 
noon, owing to the tide's being strong against her. She 
received the ransom and 】eft the Antelope just before 
dark. A mandarine boat that had been lying con- 
cealed under the land, and watching their manoeuvres, 
gave chace to her, and was within a few fathoms of 


taking hei*, when she saw a light, which the Ladrones 
answered, and the Mandarine hauled off. 

Our situation was now a most critical one ; the ran- 
som was in the hands of the Ladrones, and the Com- 
pradore dare not return with us for fear of a second 
attack from the mandarine boat. The Ladrones would 
not remain 'till morning, so we were obliged to return 
with them to the fleet. 

In the morning the chief inspected the ransom, 
which consisted of the following articles : two bales of 
superfine scarlet cloth ; two chests of opium ; two casks 
of gunpowder ; and a telescope ; the rest in dollars. 
He objected to the telescope not being new ; and said 
he should detain one of us 'till another was sent, or a 
hundred dollars in lieu of it. The Compradore how- 
ever agreed with him for the hundred dollars. 

Every thing being at length settled, the chief ordered 
two gun-boats to convey us near the Antelope ; we saw 
her just before dusk, when the Ladrone boats left us. 
We had the inexpressible pleasure of arriving on board 
the Antelope at 7 p.m., where we were most cordially 
received, and heartily congratulated on our safe and 
happy deliverance from a miserable captivity, which we 
had endured for eleven weeks and three days. 

China, December 8th, 1809. 


A 1) I'KiN Dl \ . 

A few Remarks on the Origin, Progress^ Manners, 
and Customs of the Ladrones. 

The Ladrones are a disaffected race of Chinese, that 
revolted against the oppressions of the mandarines. ― 
They first commenced their depredations on the 
Western coast (Cochin-China), by attacking small trad- 
ing vessels in row-boats, carrying from thirty to forty men 
each. They continued this system of piracy several 
years ; at length their successes, and the oppressive state 
of the Chinese, had the effect of rapidly increasing their 
numbers. Hundreds of fishermen and others flocked to 
their standard ; and as their number increased they con- 
sequently became more desperate. They blockaded all 
the principal rivers, and attacked several large junks, 
mounting from ten to fifteen guns each. 

With these junks they formed a very formidable 
fleet, and no small vessels could trade on the coast 
with safety. They plundered several small villages, 
and exercised such wanton barbarity as struck horror 
into the breasts of the Chinese. To check these enor- 
mities the government equipped a fleet of forty impe- 
rial war-junks, mounting from eighteen to twenty guns 
each. On the very first rencontre, twenty-eight of the 
imperial junks struck to the pirates ; the rest saved 
themselves by a precipitate retreal. 



These junks, fully equipped for war, were a great 
acquisition to them. Their numbers augmented so 
rapidly, that at the period of my captivity they were 
supposed to amount to near seventy thousand men, 
eight hundred large vessels, and nearly a thousand 
small ones, including row-boats. They were divided 
into five squadrons, distinguished by different coloured 
flags : each squadron commanded by an admiral, or 
chief ; but all under the orders of A-juo-chay (Ching 
yih saou), their premier chief, a most daring and enter- 
prising man, who went so far as to declare his intention 
of displacing the present Tartar family from the throne 
of China, and to restore the ancient Chinese dynasty. 

This extraordinary character would have certainly 
shaken the foundation of the government, had he not 
been thwarted by the jealousy of the second in com- 
mand, who declared his independence, and soon after 
surrendered to the mandarines with five hundred 
vessels, on promise of a pardon. Most of the inferior 
chiefs followed his example. A-juo-Chay (Ching yih 
saou) held out a few months longer, and at length surren- 
dered with sixteen thousand men, on condition of a 
general pardon, and himself to be made a mandarine 
of distinction. 

The Ladrones have no settled residence on shore, 
but live constantly in their vessels. The after-part is 
appropriated to the captain and his wives ; he generally 



has five or six. With respect to conjugal rights they 
are religiously strict ; no person is allowed to have a 
woman on board, unless married to her according to 
their laws. Every man is allowed a small berth, about 
four feet square, where he stows with his wife and 

From the number of souls crowded in so small a 
space, it must naturally be supposed they are horridly 
dirty, which is evidently the case, and their vessels 
swarm with all kinds of vermin. Rats in particular, 
which they encourage to breed, and eat them as great 
delicacies ; * in fact, there are very few creatures they 
will not eat. During our captivity we lived three weeks 
on caterpillars boiled with rice. They are much ad- 
dicted to gambling, and spend all their leisure hours 
at cards and smoking opium. 

* The Chinese in Canton only eat a particular sort of rat, 
which is very large and of a whitish colour. 


Printed by J. L. Cox, Great Queen Street, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

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